History Wiki
History Wiki

A civilization (UK and US) or civilisation (UK variant) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment. The Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt) are understood to be the earliest of Civilizations.

Early civilizations[]

  • Mesopotamian civilizations
  • Yellow River civilizations
  • Mesoamerican civilizations (3700 BCE)
    • Mayan Empire
    • Incan Empire
    • Aztec Empire
    • Toltec Empire
    • Olmec people (1600)
  • Indus Valley civilizations (3300 BCE)
    • Ancient India
    • Gupta Empire
  • Andean civilizations (3200 BCE)

Classic civilizations[]

Middle civilizations[]

Modern powers[]