The Empire of Trebizond (otherwise known as the Trapezuntine Empire) was a monarchy existing from the 13th through 15th century. They were located in Northeastern Anatolia and southern Crimea. The monarchy was formed as a revolt against Byzantine Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos who usurped the imperial throne. When the Eastern Roman Empire fell in the Fourth Crusade, Trebizond existed as a successor state with the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus.
- Alexander A. Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, Vol 2. 324–1453, second edition (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1958), p. 506: "... on the territory of the disintegrated eastern empire, three independent Greek centers were formed; The empire of Nicaea and the empire of Trebizond in Asia Minor and the Despotat of Epirus in Northern Greece."