Neo-Babylon was an empire and time period that began 626 BC and ended 539 BC. Before Neo-Babylon, Babylonia was ruled for three centuries by the Akkadians and Assyrians. When Assyrian ruler, Ashurbanipal died in 627 BC, civil wars spread throughout the Assyrian Empire. Rebellions happened and one of these were under Nabopolassar who fought for Babylonian independence. The Neo-Babylonians allied with Medes, Persians, Scythians and the Cimmerians until in 612 BC when they sacked the city of Nineveh. This is when Babylonia became independent for the first time since Hammurabi's death.
Neo-Babylon ended with Nabonidus's ruling in 539 BC. Later on, Cyrus the Great of the Persians would have conquered the empire.
- Talley Ornan, The Triumph of the Symbol: Pictorial Representation of Deities in Mesopotamia and the Biblical Image Ban (Göttingen: Academic Press Fribourg, 2005), 4 n. 6