History Wiki
Advertisement
History Wiki

The timeline of historic inventions is a chronological list of particularly important or significant technological inventions.

Note: Dates for inventions are often controversial. Inventions are often invented by several inventors around the same time, or may be invented in an impractical form many years before another inventor improves the invention into a more practical form. Where there is ambiguity, the date of the first known working version of the invention is used here.

Paleolithic era[]

See also: Paleolithic

Note: BP means "Before Present".

  • Indeterminate: Music, Language
  • 2.4 Million BP: Struck stone tools in East Africa
  • 2.4 Million BP: Olduwan (struck stone tools) in East Africa
  • 1.8 Million BP: Controlled fire[1] in East Africa
  • 1.8 Million BP: Cooking[2] in East Africa
  • 1.65 Million BP: Acheulean (struck and reworked stone tools) in Kenya
  • 1.4 Million BP: Knife in EthiopiaEast Africa
  • 1 Million BP: Sterilization of food & water in East Africa
  • 500,000 BP: Shelter construction[3]
  • 500,000-100,000 BP: Clothing
  • 400,000 BP: Pigment in Zambia,[4] Southern Africa
  • 160,000-140,000 BP: Burial[5] in Africa
  • 140,000 BP: Bone tools in Blombos Cave, South Africa
  • 140,000 BP: Shellfishing in Blombos CaveSouth Africa
  • 115,000 to 11,000 BP: Calendar by hunter-gatherers during last glacial period[6]
  • 110,000 BP: Beads in Palestine[7]
  • 100,000: Jewellery (bead) in Northern Africa and Middle East[8]
  • 100,000 BP: Lithic blades in Africa and Middle East
  • 77,000 BP: Bedding in South Africa[9]
  • 64,000 BP: Arrowhead in South Africa[10]
  • 61,000 BP: Sewing needle in South Africa[10]
  • 60,000 BP: Boat around Indian Ocean
  • 60,000 BP: Ship in New Guinea, Southeast Asia
  • 60,000 BP: Bow[11]
  • 43,000 BP: Mining in SwazilandSouthern Africa
  • 37,000 BP: Tally stick in Swaziland,[12] Southern Africa
  • 36,000 BP: Cloth woven from flax fiber, in Georgia,[13][14] Western Asia
  • 28,000 BP: Twisted rope[15]
  • 25,000 BP: Atlatl in Northwest Africa [16]
  • 16,000 BP: Pottery in China[17]
  • 15,000 BP: Boomerang in Australia[18]

10th millennium BCE[]

  • c. 10,000 BCE: Basket weaving
  • c. 9500 BCE: Granary in the Jordan Valley
  • Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent, Near East (Neolithic Revolution)
  • Farming in the Fertile CrescentNear East
  • Farm  in the Fertile CrescentNear East
  • Alcoholic beverage in the Fertile CrescentNear East
  • Adobe in the ancient Near East
  • Domestrication in Southwest Asia

9th millennium BCE[]

8th millennium BCE[]

  • Animal husbandry in the ancient Near East

7th millennium BCE[]

  • c. 7000 BCE: Dental drill in Mehrgarh, Pakistan[19]
  • c. 7000 BCE: Drill in MehrgarhPakistan
  • c. 6200 BCE: Map in Çatalhöyük, Asia Minor
  • Cloth woven from flax fiber

6th millennium BCE[]

5th millennium BCE[]

4th millennium BCE[]

3rd millennium BCE[]

  • 2800 BCE: Soap in Mesopotamia
  • 2800 BCE: Button in the Indus Valley Civilization (India/Pakistan)
  • 2800 BCE: Bathroom in the Indus Valley Civilization[40]
  • 2800 BCE: Toilet in Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[40]
  • 2700 BCE: Plumbing in the Indus Valley Civilization[40]
  • 2700 BCE: Sanitary sewer in the Indus Valley Civilization[40]
  • 2700 BCE: Sewage collection and disposal in the Indus Valley Civilization[40]
  • 2700–2300 BCE: Abacus in Sumer, Mesopotamia[41]
  • 2630-2611 BCE: Step pyramid: Imhotep in Egypt
  • 2600s BCE: Papyrus: Imhotep in Egypt
  • 2600s BCE: Suture: Imhotep in Egypt
  • 2600s BCE: Pharmaceutical cream: Imhotep in Egypt
  • 2600 BCE: Bangle in Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[42]
  • 2600 BCE: Chariot in Mesopotamia
  • 2600 BCE: Urban planning in the Indus Valley Civilization[43][44]
  • 2500s BCE: Flush toilet in Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[45]
  • 2500s BCE: Stepwell in Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[46]
  • 2500 BCE: Arch in Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[47]
  • 2500 BCE: Animal-drawn plough in the Indus Valley Civilization[48]
  • 2500 BCE: Puppet in the Indus Valley Civilization[49]
  • 2500-1900 BCE: Furnace in Balakot, Indus Valley Civilization[50]
  • 2500-900 BCE: Oven in Balakot, Indus Valley Civilization[50]
  • 2400 BCE: Shipyard in Lothal, Indus Valley Civilization
  • 2400 BCE: Dock in Lothal, Indus Valley Civilization[51]
  • 2400 BCE: Ruler in Lothal, Indus Valley Civilization[52]
  • 2332-2283 BCE: GalleyPepi I in Egypt
  • 2000 BCE: Cockfighting in the Indus Valley Civilization[53]
  • 2000 BCE: Currency
  • Dice in the Indus Valley Civilization[54]
  • Dye in Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[55]
  • Public bath in Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[56]
  • Swimming pool in Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[57]
  • Aqueduct in ancient Egypt and Indus Valley Civilization
  • Candles in Egypt
  • Dagger in Near East
  • Sickle-sword in Sumer
  • Alphabet in Phoenicia
  • Ink in China
  • Sewage system with flush toilets in the Indus Valley Civilization cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro (modern Pakistan)[58]
  • Sledge in Egypt
  • Ski in Scandinavia[18]

2nd millennium BCE[]

1st millennium BCE[]

8th century BCE[]

7th century BCE[]

6th century BCE[]

5th century BCE[]

  • Crossbow in Ancient China: In Ancient China, the earliest evidence of bronze crossbow bolts dates as early as the mid-5th century BC in Yutaishan, Hubei.[95]
  • 500-100 BCE: Big-toe stirrup in India[96][97]
  • 403-221 BCE: Cupola furnace in China[98]
  • 403-221 BCE: Foundry in China[98]

5th century BCE[]

4th century BCE[]

3rd century BCE[]

2nd century BCE[]

1st century BCE[]

  • 100 BCE: Trip hammer in China
  • 52 BCE: Armillary sphere: Geng Shouchang in China
  • 21 BCE: Collapsable umbrella: Wang Mang[126]

1st millennium CE[]

1st century[]

2nd century[]

  • 105: Paper: Cai Lun in China[134]
  • 132: Rudimentary Seismometer: Zhang Heng in China
  • 180: Rotary fan: Ding Huan in China
  • 180: Winnowing fan: Ding Huan in China
  • Steam power in Egypt
  • Vending machine in Egypt
  • Force pump in Egypt
  • Carding in India[135]


3rd century[]

4th century[]

5th century[]

6th century[]

7th century[]

8th century[]

9th century[]

  • 800-850: Quadrant: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algorismi)[184]
  • 800-850: Mural instrument: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[184]
  • 800-850: Sine quadrant: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[184]
  • 800-850: Horary quadrant: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[184]
  • 800-850: Alhidade: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[185]
  • 800-857: Under-arm deodorant: Ziryab[186]
  • 800-857: Beauty parlour: Ziryab[187]
  • 800-857: Bangs: Ziryab[187]
  • 800-857: Chemical depilatory: Ziryab[187]
  • 800-873: Valve: Banū Mūsā in Iraq[188]
  • 800-873: Float valve: Banū Mūsā[188]
  • 800-873: Feedback controller: Banū Mūsā[188]
  • 800-873: Float chamber: Banū Mūsā[189]
  • 800-873: Automatic control: Banū Mūsā[189]
  • 800-873: Automatic flute player: Banū Mūsā[190]
  • 800-873: Programmable machine: Banū Mūsā[190]
  • 800-873: Trick drinking vessels: Banū Mūsā[191]
  • 800-873: Gas mask: Banū Mūsā[191]
  • 800-873: Grab: Banū Mūsā[191]
  • 800-873: Clamshell grab: Banū Mūsā[191]
  • 800-873: Fail-safe system: Banū Mūsā[191]
  • 800-873: Mechanical musical instrument: Banū Mūsā[192]
  • 800-873: Hydropowered organ: Banū Mūsā[192]
  • 800-873: Hurricane lamp: Banū Mūsā[191]
  • 800-873: Self-feeding oil lamp: Banū Mūsā[191]
  • 800-873: Self-trimming oil lamp: Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir[191]
  • 801-873: Pure alcoholAl-Kindi (Alkindus)[193]
  • 810-887: Glass from stonesAbbas Ibn Firnas in al-Andalus[194]
  • 810-887: convex lens
  • 810-887: Clear colourless high-purity glassAbbas Ibn Firnas[194][195]
  • 810-887: MetronomeAbbas Ibn Firnas[196]
  • 810-887: Artificial weather simulationAbbas Ibn Firnas[196]
  • 813-833: Medical schoolAl-Ma'mun[153]
  • 827: Mechanical singing bird automatonAl-Ma'mun[197]
  • 852: ParachuteAbbas Ibn Firnas in al-Andalus[165]
  • 859: UniversityFatima al-Fihri[198][199]
  • 875: Hang gliderAbbas Ibn Firnas[196][200]
  • 875: Artificial wingAbbas Ibn Firnas[196][200]
  • 875: Flight control frameAbbas Ibn Firnas[196][200]
  • c. 865-900: KeroseneMuhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) in Iraq[152][201]
  • Muslin in DhakaBengal[202][203]
  • Stonepaste ceramics in Iraq[204]
  • Black powder in China
  • Gunpowder in China
  • Water turbine in the Arab Empire[191]
  • Universal sundial in Baghdad[205]
  • Universal horary dial in Baghdad[206][207]
  • Vertical-axle windmill in Afghanistan[208]
  • Naphtha in Azerbaijan[152]
  • Oil well in Azerbaijan[152]
  • CollegeMadrasah in the Muslim world[209]
  • c. 800-1000: SwitchArabic engineers[210]
  • 800-1000: Wind powered gristmills in AfghanistanPakistan and Iran[211]
  • 800-1000: Sugar refinery in AfghanistanPakistan and Iran[211]
  • 800-1000: Metal block printing in Egypt[212]
  • 800-1000: Almucantar quadrantArabic astronomers[213]
  • 800-1000: Navigational astrolabeArabic astronomers[214]
  • 800-1000: Vertical sundialArabic astronomers[215]
  • 800-1000: Polar sundialArabic astronomers[215]
  • 800-1000: CoffeeKhalid in Ethiopia
  • 800-1000: Shaving soapArabic chemists
  • 800-1000: Plumb lineArabic engineers[216]
  • 800-1000: Reed levelArabic engineers[216]
  • 800-1000: TriangulationArabic engineers[216]
  • 800-1000: Geared gristmillArabic engineers[217]
  • 800-1000: Shatranj in Persia
  • 800-1000: Paned window in the Arab Empire[218]
  • 800-1000: Street lamp in the Arab Empire[218]
  • 800-1000: Sherbet in the Arab Empire[219]
  • 800-1000: Soft drink in the Arab Empire[219][220]
  • 800-1000: Syrup in the Arab Empire[219]
  • 800-1000: Mercury escapement mechanism in the Middle East
  • 800-1000: Bridge dam in Iran[221]
  • 800-1000: Milling dam in Iran[221][222]
  • 800-1000: Diversion dam in Iraq[221]
  • 800-1000: Public library in the Arab Empire[223]
  • 800-1000: Lending library in the Arab Empire[223]
  • 800-1000: Library catalog in the Arab Empire[224]
  • 800-1000: Firecracker in China
  • 800-1000: Snakes and ladders in India
  • 801-1000: Municipal solid waste handling: Al-KindiQusta ibn LuqaMuhammad ibn Zakarīya RāziIbn Al-Jazzaral-Masihi[225]
  • 836-1000: Erectile dysfunction treatment: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya RāziThabit bin Qurra (Thebit), Ibn Al-Jazzar[226]
  • 853-929: Observation tubeMuhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius)[227]
  • 865-925: Hard soapMuhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[228]
  • 865-925: ChemotherapyMuhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[229]
  • 865-925: AntisepticMuhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[152]
  • 820: Algebra by Al-Khwarizmi[230]
  • 801–873: Alcohol distillation by Al-Kindi[231][232][233]
  • 801–873: Fragrance extraction (rose oil) by Al-Kindi[234]
  • 9th century: Anasthetic compound by Islamic physicians[235]
  • 9th century: Gunpowder in Tang Dynasty China; gunpowder is, according to prevailing academic consensus, discovered in the 9th century by Chinese alchemists searching for an elixir of immortality.[236] Evidence of gunpowder's first use in China comes from the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (618–907).[237] The earliest known recorded recipes for gunpowder are written by Zeng Gongliang, Ding Du, and Yang Weide in the Wujing Zongyao, a military manuscript compiled in 1044 during the Song Dynasty (960–1279).[238][239][240]
  • 9th century: Muslin fabric in Bengal[203]
  • 9th century: Numerical zero in the Indian subcontinent; the concept of zero as a number, and not merely a symbol for separation is attributed to India.[241] In India, practical calculations are carried out using zero, which is treated like any other number by the 9th century, even in case of division.[241][242]
  • 9th century: Sugar mill in Islamic world[243]
  • 9th century: Syringe by Ammar al-Mawsili[244][245]
  • 9th century: Windpump in Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan[246]
  • 850: Conical valve by Banu Musa brothers[247]
  • 850: Gas mask by Banu Musa brothers[248][249]
  • 850: Grab by Banu Musa brothers[250]
  • 850: Automatic flute player, the first music sequencer and the earliest programmable automated music technology, by Banu Musa brothers[251][252]
  • 852: Parachute by Armen Firman[253]
  • 809–887: Glider by Abbas ibn Firnas[254][255][256]
  • 859: University (Al-Karaouine) by Fatima al-Fihri in Morocco[230]
  • 854–925: Antiseptic alcohol by Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi[245]
  • 854–925: Bar soap by Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi[257]
  • 854–925: Petroleum distillation (kerosene) by Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[258][259]
  • 854–925: Kerosene lamp (naphtha lamp) by Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi[260][261]
  • 854–925: Sulfuric acid by Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi[262][263]

10th century[]

  • 903-986: Timekeeping astrolabe: Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi)[264]
  • 904: Fire Arrow in China
  • 919: Double-piston flamethrower in China
  • 984: Pound lock: Qiao Weiyo
  • 953: Fountain pen: Al-Muizz Lideenillah of Egypt[165][265][266]
  • 960-1000: Restaurant in the Arab Empire[267]
  • 994: Astronomical sextant: Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi in Persia[268]
  • 996: Geared mechanical astrolabe: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[269]
  • Banknote in China
  • Fire lance in China
  • Gun in China
  • Milling factory in Baghdad[270]
  • Cartographic grid in Baghdad[271]
  • Graph paper in the Arab Empire[272][273][274]
  • Horizontal-axle windmill in AfghanistanPakistan and Iran[208]
  • 10th century: Arabic numerals (Western Arabic numeral symbols) in Islamic North Africa[275]
  • 10th century: Decimal fractions by Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi[276][277]
  • 931–974: Fountain pen in Fatimid Caliphate during reign of Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah[278]
  • 994: Mural sextant constructed in Ray, Iran, by Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi.[279]
  • 1000: Dental extraction and replantation by Al-Zahrawi[280][281]
  • 1000: Migraine surgery by Al-Zahrawi[282]
  • 1000: Surgical needle by Al-Zahrawi[245]

2nd millennium[]

11th century[]

12th century[]

13th century[]

14th century[]

  • 1304-1375: Astrolabic clock: Ibn al-Shatir[393]
  • 1304-1375: Compendium instrument: Ibn al-Shatir[215]
  • 1304-1375: Compass dial: Ibn al-Shatir[394]
  • 1350: Rope bridge in Peru
  • 1355: Bombard: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Booster: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Matchlock: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Multistage rocket: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Naval mine: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Round shot: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Shell: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Wheellock: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1371: Polar-axis sundial: Ibn al-Shatir[395]
  • 32-point compass rose in the Arab world[396]
  • Arquebus in China and Middle East
  • Katana in Japan
  • Spherical astrolabe in the Middle East
  • 13th century to 14th century: Cotton gin with worm gear in India's Delhi Sultanate[397]
  • 13th century to 1540: Draw bar in Delhi, India, during the Delhi Sultanate or Mughal Empire[398]
  • 14th century to 16th century: Cotton gin with crank handle in northern India during the late Delhi Sultanate or the early Mughal Empire[399]

15th century[]

  • 1400-1429: Plate of conjunctions: Jamshīd al-Kāshī[400][401]
  • 1400-1429: Planetary analog computer: Jamshīd al-Kāshī[401][402][403]
  • 1405-1433: Troopship: Zheng He
  • 1405-1433: Treasure ship: Zheng He
  • 1441: Rain gauge: Jang Yeong-sil
  • 1450s: Alphabetic movable type printing press: Johannes Gutenberg
  • 1451: Concave lens for eyeglasses: Nicholas of Cusa
  • 1490-1492: Terrestrial globe: Martin Behaim
  • 1494: Double-entry bookkeeping system: Luca Pacioli
  • 1498: Bristle toothbrush: Hongzhi Emperor
  • Iron-chain suspension bridge in China
  • Early 15th century: Matchlock arquebus in Ottoman Empire[404]
  • Mid-15th century: Coffee in Sufi monasteries of Yemen, Southern Arabia.[405][406]
  • 1465: Musket in Ottoman Empire[407]

16th century[]

17th century[]

  • 1609: Telescope: Hans Lippershey, Zacharias Janssen, Jacob Metius[437]
  • 1610: Flintlock: Marin le Bourgeoys
  • 1620: Slide rule: William Oughtred
  • 1623: Automatic calculator: Wilhelm Schickard
  • 1631: Vernier scale: Pierre Vernier
  • 1642: Adding machine: Blaise Pascal
  • 1643: Barometer: Evangelista Torricelli
  • 1645: Vacuum pump: Otto von Guericke
  • 1657: Pendulum clock: Christiaan Huygens
  • 1672: Steam car: Ferdinand Verbiest[438][439]
  • 1679: Pressure cooker: Denis Papin
  • 1690: Polhem wheel: Christopher Polhem
  • 1698: Steam engine powered water pump: Thomas Savery
  • 1700: Piano: Bartolomeo Cristofori
  • Palampore in India[440][441]
  • 1621: Rack-and-pinion mechanism in Turkish muskets of the Ottoman Empire[442]
  • 1633: Rocket flight by Lagâri Hasan Çelebi[443][444]
  • 17th century: Banjo in West Africa[445]
  • 17th century: Flush deck in Bengal Subah, Mughal Empire (modern Bangladesh)[446]
  • 17th century: Roller mill in Mughal India[398]

18th century[]

  • 1709: Iron smelting using coke: Abraham Darby I
  • 1712: Steam piston engine: Thomas Newcomen
  • 1714: Mercury thermometer: Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
  • 1737: Marine chronometer (H1): John Harrison
  • 1742: Franklin stove: Benjamin Franklin
  • 1750: Flatboat: Jacob Yoder
  • 1752: Lightning rod: Benjamin Franklin
  • 1759: Shampoo: Sake Dean Mahomet of Bengal
  • 1764: Spinning jenny: James Hargreaves/Thomas Highs
  • 1767: Carbonated water: Joseph Priestley
  • 1769: Water frame: Richard Arkwright/Thomas Highs
  • 1775: Submarine Turtle: David Bushnell
  • 1776: Steamboat: Claude de Jouffroy
  • 1776: Watt steam engine: James Watt
  • 1777: Card teeth making machine: Oliver Evans
  • 1777: Circular saw: Samuel Miller
  • 1779: Spinning mule: Samuel Crompton
  • 1780: The Mysorean rockets, the first iron-cased rockets and the first missiles, are deployed by the Mysore Sultanate's Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan against the British at the Battle of Pollilur in South India. They later inspired the Congreve rockets.[447]
  • 1780s: Iron-cased rocket: Tipu Sultan in India[448]
  • 1780s: Metal-cylinder rocket artillery: Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan in India[449]
  • 1780s: Iron rocket artillery: Tipu Sultan of India[448]
  • 1783: Hot air balloon: Montgolfier brothers
  • 1784: Bifocals: Benjamin Franklin
  • 1784: Oil lamp: Aimé Argand[18]
  • 1784: Shrapnel shell: Henry Shrapnel
  • 1785: Power loom: Edmund Cartwright
  • 1785: Automatic flour mill: Oliver Evans
  • 1786: Threshing machine: Andrew Meikle
  • 1791: Artificial teeth: Nicholas Dubois De Chemant
  • 1795: Appertization: Nicolas Appert
  • 1798: Vaccination: Edward Jenner
  • 1798: Lithography: Alois Senefelder
  • Indian clubs in India[450]

19th century[]

1800s[]

  • 1804: Locomotive: Richard Trevithick
  • 1809: Arc lamp: Humphry Davy

1810s[]

  • 1817: Kaleidoscope: David Brewster
  • 1818: Bicycle: Karl Drais[18]

1820s[]

  • 1821: Electric motor: Michael Faraday
  • 1826: Photography: Joseph Nicéphore Niépce
  • 1826: Internal combustion engine: Samuel Morey
  • 1827: Friction match: John Walker
  • 1829: Steam locomotive: George Stephenson[18]

1830s[]

  • 1830: Thermostat: Andrew Ure[18]
  • 1831: Electrical generator: Michael Faraday, Ányos Jedlik
  • 1837: Standard diving dress: Augustus Siebe[451]
  • 1838: closed diving suit with a helmet: Augustus Siebe[451]

1840s[]

1850s[]

1860s[]

  • 1860: Light BulbSir Joseph Swan
  • 1862: Mechanical submarine: Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol
  • 1866: Dynamite: Alfred Nobel

1870s[]

  • 1870: Chewing gum: Thomas Adams[18]
  • 1870: Stock ticker: Thomas Alva Edison
  • 1873: Jeans: Levi Strauss[18]
  • 1874: Barbed wire: Joseph Glidden[18]
  • 1874: DDT: Othmar Zeidler[18]
  • 1877: Induction motor: Nikola Tesla
  • 1877: Phonograph: Thomas Alva Edison
  • 1878: Rebreather: Henry Fleuss[457]

1880s[]

  • 1883: Two-phase (alternating current) induction motor: Nikola Tesla
  • 1885: Machine gun: Hiram Stevens Maxim[458]
  • 1888: Polyphase AC Electric power system: Nikola Tesla (30 related patents.)
  • Takadiastase: Jokichi Takamine in Japan

1890s[]

  • 1891: Escalator: Jesse W. Reno[18]
  • 1891: Landing gear: Chūhachi Ninomiya in Japan
  • 1891: Pusher propeller: Chūhachi Ninomiya in Japan
  • 1891: Stabilizer: Chūhachi Ninomiya in Japan
  • 1891: Tesla coil: Nikola Tesla
  • 1893: Biplane: Chūhachi Ninomiya[459] in Japan
  • 1893: Tailless aircraft: Chūhachi Ninomiya[459] in Japan
  • 1893: Tuned wireless communication: Nikola Tesla (The True Wireless)
  • 1893: Radio: Nikola Tesla [460]
  • 1894: Radio transmission: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal[461]
  • 1894: RadiotelegraphJagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal
  • 1894: Methamphetamine: Nagayoshi Nagai[462] in Japan
  • 1896: Long-distance wireless transmission: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal
  • 1898: Remote control: Nikola Tesla
  • 1898: Ignition coil: Nikola Tesla
  • 1899: Iron-mercury coherer: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal

20th century[]

1900s[]

  • 1900: Epinephrine (adrenaline): Jokichi Takamine & Keizo Uenaka in Japan
  • 1900: Self-heating can
  • 1901: Mercury vapor lamp: Peter C. Hewitt
  • 1902: Air Conditioner: Willis Carrier [18]
  • 1903: Powered, controlled airplane: Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright (Wright brothers)
  • 1907: Monosodium glutamate: Kikunae Ikeda[463] in Japan
  • 1908: Cellophane: Jacques E. Brandenberger
  • 1908: Haber process: Fritz Haber
  • 1908: Umami: Kikunae Ikeda[464] in Japan
  • Microwave optics: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal
  • Crescograph: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal[465]

1910s[]

  • 1910: Aberic acid: Umetaro Suzuki in Japan
  • 1910: Thiamine (Vitamin B1): Umetaro Suzuki[466] in Japan
  • 1910: Vitamin (B vitamin): Umetaro Suzuki in Japan
  • 1913: Bra: Mary Phelps Jacob
  • 1914: Tank, military: Sir William Ashbee Tritton and Major Walter Gordon Wilson[467]
  • 1916: Cultured pearl: Mikimoto Kōkichi in Japan
  • 1919: Theremin: Leon Theremin

1920s[]

  • 1920: Saha ionization equation: Meghnad Saha[468] in Bengal
  • 1923: Autogyro: Juan de la Cierva
  • 1924: Automatic power loom: Sakichi Toyoda[469] in Japan
  • 1924: Autonomation: Sakichi Toyoda[469] in Japan
  • 1924: Autonomous automation: Sakichi Toyoda[469] in Japan
  • 1925: Ultra-centrifuge: Theodor Svedberg - used to determine molecular weights
  • 1926: Yagi antenna: Hidetsugu Yagi & Shintaro Uda in Japan
  • 1926: Directional antenna: Hidetsugu Yagi & Shintaro Uda in Japan
  • 1926: High-gain antenna: Hidetsugu Yagi & Shintaro Uda in Japan
  • 1926: Kenjiro Takayanagi invents the first electronic television.[470]
  • 1927: Mechanical cotton picker: John Rust
  • 1928: Sliced bread: Otto Frederick Rohwedder
  • 1928: Antibiotics: Alexander Fleming (Penicillin)
  • 1928: Raman effect: Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman[471] in India
  • 1928: Magnetic interference balance: Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar & K. N. Mathur[472] in India
  • 1928: KS steel by Kotaro Honda[473]
  • Phototelegraphic transmission: Yasujiro Niwa in Japan
  • Mechanical television: Yasujiro Niwa in Japan

1930s[]

  • 1931: Magnetic-resistant steel: Kotaro Honda in Japan
  • 1931: Magnetic steel: Kotaro Honda in Japan
  • 1931: Alnico: Tokuhichi Mishima in Japan
  • 1931: MKM steel: Tokuhichi Mishima in Japan[474][475]
  • 1934: Switching circuit theory is introduced by Akira Nakashima,[476][477][478][479] laying the foundations for digital circuit design, in digital computers and other areas of modern technology.[479]
  • 1937: Nylon: Wallace H. Carothers[18]
  • 1937: Portable electrocardiograph: Taro Takemi in Japan
  • 1938: Ballpoint pen: Laszlo Biro
  • 1939: Helicopter: Igor Sikorsky
  • 1939: Automated teller machine (ATM): Luther George Simjian
  • 1939: Vectorcardiography: Taro Takemi in Japan
  • Nuclear medicineTaro TakemiIrene Joliot-CurieFrederic Joliot-Curie

1940s[]

  • 1941: Velcro: George de Mestral
  • 1942: The earliest electroacoustic tape music recording by Halim El-Dabh in Cairo, Egypt.[480]
  • 1942: Nuclear reactor: Enrico Fermi[18] and Robert Oppenheimer
  • 1942: Undersea oil pipeline: Hartley, Anglo-Iranian, Siemens in Operation Pluto
  • 1944: Fire balloon in Japan
  • 1945: Nuclear weaponManhattan Project
  • 1946: Bikini: Louis Réard[18]
  • 1947: Transistor: William Shockley, Walter Brattain, John Bardeen
  • 1947: Polaroid camera: Edwin Land
  • 1948: Long Playing Record: Peter Carl Goldmark
  • 1948: Holography: Dennis Gabor[18]
  • 1949: Atomic clocks
  • 1949: Kei car in Japan
  • Electric rice cooker: Mitsubishi Electric in Japan

1950s[]

  • 1950: Steadicam tracking shot: Akira Kurosawa in Japan
  • 1950: The PIN photodiode is invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa.[481]
  • 1950: The static induction transistor, a type of JFET, is invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa and Y. Watanabe.[482]
  • 1951: Combined oral contraceptive pill: Djerassi, Miramontes and Rosenkranz [483] in United States
  • 1951: Liquid Paper: Bette Nesmith Graham in United States
  • 1952: Floppy disk: Yoshiro Nakamatsu[484] in Japan
  • 1952: Optical fiber: Narinder Singh Kapany[485][486] in India and United Kingdom
  • 1952: The avalanche photodiode is invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa.[487]
  • 1952: Fusion bomb: Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam in United States
  • 1953: Medical ultrasonography
  • 1953: The optical fiber is invented by Narinder Singh Kapany and Harold Hopkins.[488][489][490]
  • 1955: Video phone: Gregorio Y. Zara in the Philippines
  • 1955: Bounce lighting: Subrata Mitra[491][492] in Bengal
  • 1956: Digital clock
  • 1957: Electric compact calculator: Casio in Japan
  • 1957: Satellite: Kerim Kerimov (Sputnik 1) in Turkestan
  • 1957: The first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, is built and launched by the Soviet Union. Its lead architects were Sergei Korolev and Kerim Kerimov.[493][494]
  • 1957: The semiconductor laser is invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa.[487][495]
  • 1958: Implantable pacemaker: Rune Elmqvist in Sweden
  • Dedicated high-speed rail lines in Japan
  • High-speed narrow gauge railway: Shinkansen in Japan
  • 1959: Bullet train: Kawasaki Heavy Industries in Japan
  • 1959: The gas laser is invented by Ali Javan.[496]

1960s[]

  • 1960: Laser: Theodore Harold Maiman in North America
  • 1960: Solid-state electronic calculator: Sony in Japan
  • 1961: Human spaceflight: Yuri Gagarin, Sergey Korolyov and Kerim Kerimov[493] in Turkestan
  • 1961: The first human spaceflight, Yuri Gagarin's 108-minute trip around the globe aboard the Vostok 1, is conducted by the Soviet Union's Sergei Korolev and Kerim Kerimov.[493][494]
  • 1963: Tube structure: Fazlur Rahman Khan in United States
  • 1963: Frame tube structure: Fazlur Rahman Khan in United States
  • 1963: The tube structural system is invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan.[497]
  • 1963: Fiber-optic communication is invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa.[498]
  • 1965: Trussed tube structure: Fazlur Rahman Khan in United States
  • 1965: Tactile paving invented by Seiichi Miyake.[499]
  • 1966: The first automated teller machine (ATM), the Computer Loan Machine developed in Japan, is released.[500][501]
  • Late 1960s: The first digital fax machine, the Dacom Rapidfax, is released.[502][503]
  • 1967: The first fully automated space docking, of Cosmos 186 and Cosmos 188, is conducted by the Soviet Union and led by Kerim Kerimov.[493][494]
  • 1967: The first PCM (pulse-code modulation) digital audio recorder is developed by NHK's research facilities.[504]
  • 1967: Space dock: Kerim Kerimov[493][494] in Turkestan
  • 1967: Automatic Teller Machine: John Shepherd-Barron in United Kingdom
  • 1967: Bullet Time: Tatsunoko Production in Japan
  • 1967: Hypertext: Project Xanadu in United States
  • 1967: Quartz wristwatch: Seiko[505] in Japan
  • 1968: The first phaser effects pedal, the Uni-Vibe, is invented by Fumio Mieda of Shin-ei.[506]
  • 1968: The aperture grille CRT display techology is introduced by Sony with their Trinitron television.[507]
  • 1968: The first text-to-speech synthesis system is developed by Noriko Umeda's team at the Electrotechnical Laboratory.[508]
  • Aperture grille: Sony in Japan
  • Packet switching: Paul Baran in United States
  • Shearing interferometer: M. V. R. K. Murty in India[509]
  • 1969: Video cassette: Sony in Japan
  • 1969: Direct-drive turntable (Technics SP-10) invented by Shuichi Obata of Matsushita.[510] based in Osaka.[511][512]

1970s[]

1980s[]

  • 1980: Compact Disc: Sony[18] in Japan
  • 1980: Flash memory: Fujio Masuoka[527][528] in Japan
  • 1980: The Roland TR-808, the first fully programmable drum machine, is introduced by Roland Corporation.[529]
  • 1980: The first laptop is invented by Suwa Seikosha employee Yukio Yokozawa in 1980,[530] and is released by Seiko as the HC-20 in 1981.[531]
  • 1980-1982: The first LCD televisions were developed by Hattori Seiko's R&D group from 1980.[532] In 1982, Seiko Epson released the first LCD television, the Epson TV Watch.[533][534]
  • 1980-1985: The lithium-iron battery was developed from the research of Rachid Yazami and John B. Goodenough in 1980, and further developed by Tokio Yamabe and Shizukuni Yata in 1981,[535] and found that it was very effective for the anode in the conventional liquid electrolyte.[536] [537] which led to Akira Yoshino of Asahi Chemical building the first lithium-ion battery in 1985.[538]
  • 1981: 3D printing is invented by Hideo Kodama of Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute.[539][540]
  • 1981: Handheld electronic camera: Sony in Japan
  • 1981: Video Floppy: Sony in Japan
  • 1982: Compact Disc player: Sony[541] in Japan
  • 1982: CD-ROM: An acronym of "Compact Disc Read-only memory", it is a pre-pressed compact disc that contains data accessible to, but not writable by, a computer for data storage and music playback. The 1985 Yellow Book standard developed by Sony adapted the format to hold any form of binary data.[542]
  • 1982: Camcorder: Sony in Japan
  • 1982: D-pad: Gunpei Yokoi in Japan
  • 1982: Pocket television: Sony in Japan
  • 1982: Flat panel display: Sony in Japan
  • 1982: Parallax scrolling: Irem[543] in Japan
  • 1982: The first CD player (Sony CDP-101) is released by Sony.[544]
  • 1982: The neodymium magnet is invented independently by [General Motors]] (GM) and Sumitomo Special Metals.[545]
  • 1982: A CD-ROM contains data accessible to, but not writable by, a computer for data storage and music playback. It is first demonstrated by Denon in 1982.[546] The Yellow Book standard is later developed by Sony and Philips in 1985.[542]
  • 1983: Personal digital assistant: Casio in Japan
  • 1983: Internet and TCP/IP network: Robert E. Kahn in United States
  • 1984: Digital synthesizer: Yamaha in Japan
  • 1984: Portable CD player: Sony in Japan
  • 1984: Phase distortion synthesis: Casio in Japan
  • 1984: Thin-film transistor (TFT): Shunpei Yamazaki in Japan
  • 1985: Graphing calculator: Casio in Japan
  • 1985: Lithium-ion battery invented by Akira Yoshino.[547]
  • 1986: The first digital single-lens reflex camera, the Nikon SVC, revealed by Nikon.[548]
  • 1986: The first PC virus (Brain) is created by Basit Farooq Alvi and Amjad Farooq Alvi.[549]
  • 1986: Digital single-lens reflex camera: Nikon in Japan
  • 1986: PC virusBrain boot sector virus by Basit Farooq Alvi and Amjad Farooq Alvi in Pakistan
  • 1987: Electronically-controlled continuously variable transmission: Subaru in Japan
  • 1988: Digital camera: Fuji in Japan
  • 1988: Liquid crystal display television: Sharp Corporation in Japan
  • Digital Audio Tape: Sony in Japan
  • PCM adaptor: Sony in Japan
  • Vowel-Consonant synthesis: Casio in Japan
  • 1989: Continuously variable transmission car: Subaru in Japan
  • 1989: Blue laser: Isamu Akasaki in Japan
  • 1989: Gallium nitride: Isamu Akasaki[550] in Japan
  • 1989: p–n junction: Isamu Akasaki[550] in Japan
  • 1989: Digital waveguide synthesis: Yamaha in Japan
  • 1989: The first color LCD video projector, Epson's VPJ-700, based on their 3LCD technology, is released.[534]
  • 1989: The first color plasma display, produced by Fujitsu, is released.[551]

1990s[]

  • 1990: Handheld colour television: Sony in Japan
  • 1990: Handheld liquid crystal display television: Sony in Japan
  • 1990: World Wide Web: Tim Berners-Lee[18][552] in United Kingdom
  • 1991: Lithium battery: Sony in Japan
  • 1991: Memory card: Japan Electronic Industries Development Association
  • 1992: Plasma colour display: Fujitsu in Japan
  • 1992: Blue laser by Shuji Nakamura[553]
  • 1993: Mosaic, the first popular web browser is introduced
  • 1993: Mosaic, the first popular web browser is introduced
  • 1993: Global Positioning System (GPS): United States Department of Defense
  • 1993: Blue LED: Shuji Nakamura in Japan
  • 1994: Physical modelling synthesis: Yamaha in Japan
  • 1994: Wiki: Ward Cunningham[554] in United States
  • 1994: QR code by Denso Wave[555]
  • 1994: Stanford Federal Credit Union becomes the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994.[556]
  • 1994: Stanford Federal Credit Union becomes the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994.[557]
  • 1995: DVD is an optical disc storage format, invented and developed by Panasonic, Philips, Sony and Toshiba in 1995. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions.
  • 1995: DVD is an optical disc storage format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions.
  • 1995: The first web-based commercial online auction (eBay) is founded by Pierre Omidyar.[558]
  • 1995: DVD: An optical disc storage format, invented and developed by Japanese companies Sony, Toshiba and Panasonic in 1995. DVD's offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions.
  • 1995: Web-based online auctionPierre Omidyar (eBay) in United States
  • 1995: Web browser based webmail: Hotmail (Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith) in United States
  • 1996: Analog stick: Nintendo in Japan
  • 1996: Force feedback: Nintendo in Japan
  • 1997: Non-mechanical digital audio player: SaeHan Information Systems[559] in South Korea
  • 1997: Plasma television: Pioneer Corporation in Japan
  • 1998: Arcade-quality GPU: VideoLogic (Hossein Yassaie) and NEC
  • 1998: Hidden surface removalVideoLogic (Hossein Yassaie) and NEC
  • Analog modeling synthesizer: Korg in Japan
  • Indium gallium nitride: Shuji Nakamura in Japan
  • 1999: Camera phone (VP-210) by Kyocera[560]

3rd millennium[]

21st century[]

2000s[]

2010s[]

Notes[]

  1. Harvard Gazette, Invention of cooking drove evolution of the human species
  2. Harvard Gazette, Invention of cooking drove evolution of the human species
  3. Hadfield, Peter, Gimme Shelter
  4. Earliest evidence of art found
  5. Evolving in their graves: early burials hold clues to human origins
  6. Bruton, Eric (1979). The History of Clocks and Watches. New York: Crescent Books. ISBN 0-517-37744-6. 
  7. Scott Elias (12 September 2012). Origins of Human Innovation and Creativity. Elsevier. pp. 28. ISBN 978-0-444-53821-5. 
  8. "News in Science - Shell beads suggest new roots for culture - 23/06/2006". http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s1670011.htm. Retrieved on 23 October 2017. 
  9. Wadley L, Sievers C, Bamford M, Goldberg P, Berna F, Miller C. (2011). Middle Stone Age Bedding Construction and Settlement Patterns at Sibudu, South Africa. Science 9 December 2011: Vol. 334 no. 6061 pp. 1388-1391
  10. 10.0 10.1 Backwell L, d'Errico F, Wadley L.(2008). Middle Stone Age bone tools from the Howiesons Poort layers, Sibudu Cave, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35:1566-1580.Error: Bad DOI specified!
  11. Jennifer Viegas (31 March 2008). "Early Weapon Evidence Reveals Bloody Past". Discovery News. http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/03/31/earliest-weapon-human.html. 
  12. Pegg, Jr., Ed, Lebombo Bone
  13. "Clothes Make the (Hu) Man" (2009). Science 325 (5946). doi:10.1126/science.325_1329a. PMID 19745126. 
  14. "30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers" (2009). Science 325 (5946). doi:10.1126/science.1175404. PMID 19745144. 
  15. Small, Meredith F. (April 2002). "String theory: the tradition of spinning raw fibers dates back 28,000 years. (At The Museum)". Natural History 111.3. 
  16. Keddie, Grant, The Atlatl Weapon[dead link]
  17. "Chinese pottery may be earliest discovered." Associated Press. 2009-06-01
  18. 18.00 18.01 18.02 18.03 18.04 18.05 18.06 18.07 18.08 18.09 18.10 18.11 18.12 18.13 18.14 18.15 18.16 18.17 18.18 18.19 18.20 Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions, Encyclopædia Britannica
  19. Stone age man used dentist drill. BBC News.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Piotr Bienkowski; Alan Millard (15 April 2010). Dictionary of the Ancient Near East. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-8122-2115-2. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 D. T. Potts (2012). A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. p. 285. 
  22. Loewe (1968), 170–171.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Deng, Gang. (1997). Chinese Maritime Activities and Socioeconomic Development, c. 2100 B.C.-1900 A.D. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29212-4, p. 22.
  24. Miriam T. Stark (15 April 2008). Archaeology of Asia. John Wiley & Sons. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-4051-5303-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=z4_bT2SJ-HUC&pg=PA130. Retrieved on 5 October 2012. 
  25. Carter, Robert "Boat remains and maritime trade in the Persian Gulf during the sixth and fifth millennia BC"Antiquity Volume 80 No.307 March 2006 [1]
  26. Kulke, Hermann & Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India. Routledge. 22. ISBN 0415329205.
  27. Jane McIntosh (2008), The Ancient Indus Valley, p.333
  28. "First Evidence of Cotton at Neolithic Mehrgarh, Pakistan: Analysis of Mineralized Fibres from a Copper Bead" (2002). Journal of Archaeological Science 29 (12): 1393–1401. doi:10.1006/jasc.2001.0779. 
  29. "Dashing Finns were first to get their skates on 5,000 years ago". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/science/article3090363.ece. Retrieved on 2007-12-24. 
  30. "The Question of Meteoritic versus Smelted Nickel-Rich Iron: Archaeological Evidence and Experimental Results" (1989). World Archaeology 20 (3): 403–421. doi:10.1080/00438243.1989.9980081. 
  31. "Bronocice, Flintbek, Uruk, JEbel Aruda and Arslantepe: The Earliest Evidence Of Wheeled Vehicles In Europe And The Near East" (December 2006). Palaeohistoria 47/48: 10-28 (11). University of Groningen. 
  32. M J Brownstein (June 15, 1993). "A brief history of opiates, opioid peptides, and opioid receptors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90 (12): 5391–5393. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.12.5391. PMID 8390660. 
  33. PBS Frontline (1997). "The Opium Kings". https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/heroin/etc/history.html. Retrieved on May 16, 2007. 
  34. A.K. Sharma; Seema Wahad; Raśmī Śrīvāstava (2010). Agriculture Diversification: Problems and Perspectives. I. K. International Pvt Ltd. p. 140. 
  35. 35.0 35.1 John Coleman Darnell (2006). "The Wadi of the Horus Qa-a: A Tableau of Royal Ritual Power in the Theban Western Desert". Yale. https://web.archive.org/web/20110201053044/http://www.yale.edu/egyptology/ae_alamat_wadi_horus.htm. Retrieved on 2010-08-24. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 The sea-craft of prehistory, p76, by Paul Johnstone, Routledge, 1980
  37. Rodda & Ubertini (2004), The Basis of Civilization--water Science?, p. 161, International Association of Hydrological Science, ISBN 1901502570
  38. Harriet Crawford, Sumer and the Sumerians, Cambridge University Press, (New York 1993), ISBN 0-521-38850-3, page 73
  39. "Tchogha Zanbil". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/113. "It is the largest ziggurat outside of Mesopotamia and the best preserved of this type of stepped pyramidal monument." 
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 Teresi, Dick; et al. (2002), Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science--from the Babylonians to the Maya, pp. 351-2, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-83718-8
  41. Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-471-39671-0. 
  42. Ghosh (1990), page 83
  43. Davreu (1978), pages 121-129
  44. Pruthi (2004), pages 225-270
  45. Rodda, J. C. and Ubertini, Lucio (2004). The Basis of Civilization - Water Science? pg 161. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (International Association of Hydrological Sciences Press 2004).
  46. Livingston & Beach, 20
  47. Kryss Katsiavriades and Talaat Qureshi, Inventions - 3000 BCE to 2000 BCE.
  48. Lal, R. (August 2001), "Thematic evolution of ISTRO: transition in scientific issues and research focus from 1955 to 2000", Soil and Tillage Research 61 (1-2): 3-12 [3] 
  49. Ghosh, Massey, and Banerjee, page 14
  50. 50.0 50.1 Dales (1974)
  51. Rao, S. R. (1985), Lothal, pp. 27–8, Archaeological Survey of India
  52. Whitelaw, page 14
  53. Sherman, David M. (2002). Tending Animals in the Global Village. Blackwell Publishing. 46. ISBN 0683180517.
  54. "Games and Amusement: Dice". Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology edited by A. Ghosh (1990), 1: 178-179, Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 9004092641
  55. Bhardwaj, H.C. & Jain, K.K., "Indian Dyes and Industry During 18th-19th Century", Indian Journal of History of Science, 17 (11): 70-81, New Delhi: Indian National Science Academy.
  56. Keay, John (2001), India: A History, 13-14, Grove Press, ISBN 0802137970.
  57. Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro
  58. Rodda, J.C. and Ubertini, Lucio (2004). The Basis of Civilization – Water Science? p. 161. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (International Association of Hydrological Sciences Press 2004).
  59. Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-471-39671-0. 
  60. David S. Anthony, The Horse, The Wheel and Language: How bronze age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world (2007), pp. 397-405.
  61. Stephen Chrisomalis (2010). Numerical Notation: A Comparative History. p. 247. https://books.google.nl/books?id=ux--OWgWvBQC&pg=PA247#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  62. Thrusfield, page 2
  63. Akanuma, H. (2005). "The significance of the composition of excavated iron fragments taken from Stratum III at the site of Kaman-Kalehöyük, Turkey". Anatolian Archaeological Studies 14: 147–158. Japanese Institute of Anatolian Archaeology. 
  64. "Ironware piece unearthed from Turkey found to be oldest steel". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2009-03-26. https://web.archive.org/web/20090329111924/http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/001200903261611.htm. Retrieved on 27 March 2009. 
  65. "World's Greatest Inventions". http://whoinvented.blogspot.com//2008/05/inventions-2nd-millennium-bc-2000-bc-to.html.. Retrieved on 26 March 2018. 
  66. Berlev, Oleg (1997). "Bureaucrats". in Donadoni, Sergio. The Egyptians. Trans. Bianchi, Robert et al.. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-226-15555-2. OCLC 35808323. 
  67. One of world's oldest sundials dug up in Kings' Valley, Upper Egypt
  68. History Channel, Where Did It Come From? Episode: "Ancient China: Agriculture"
  69. http://www.michaelppowers.com/prosperity/coins.htm.
  70. Alter, page 88
  71. Craddock, P. T. et al. (1983), "Zinc production in medieval India", World Archaeology 15 (2), Industrial Archaeology, p. 13
  72. 72.0 72.1 History of Ondol
  73. Koppel (2007), page 217
  74. A World of Glass
  75. Needham (1986), volume 6 part 5 105-106
  76. 76.0 76.1 Zaheer Baber (1996), The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India, p. 23, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791429199
  77. "Review of Ancient Wisdom of Qanat, and Suggestions for Future Water Management" (PDF). www.e-sciencecentral.org. p. 57.
  78. "APPLICATION OF TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURE AS SUSTAINABLE APPROACH TO MITIGATION OF SHORTAGE WATER SUPPLY IN DESERT REGIONS" (PDF). universitypublications.net. p. 125.
  79. 79.0 79.1 79.2 79.3 Surgical Instruments from Ancient Rome
  80. Roman period surgery set on show, BBC
  81. 81.0 81.1 Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", The American Historical Review 65 (3), p. 521.
  82. Kriger, Colleen E. & Connah, Graham (2006), Cloth in West African History, p. 120, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 0759104220
  83. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "jute"
  84. 84.0 84.1 84.2 84.3 [2]
  85. Rolph, George (1873). Something about sugar: its history, growth, manufacture and distribution. San Francisco: J.J. Newbegin. https://archive.org/details/somethingaboutsu00rolprich. 
  86. Stephanie Dalley, The Mystery of the Hanging Garden of Babylon: an elusive World Wonder traced, (2013), OUP ISBN 978-0-19-966226-5
  87. "Sennacherib, Archimedes, and the Water Screw: The Context of Invention in the Ancient World" (2003). Technology and Culture 44 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1353/tech.2003.0011. 
  88. Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China 4(2) (1965), p. 352.
  89. Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China 4(2) (1965), p. 352.
  90. 90.0 90.1 Everwondered? (31 May 2008). "World's Greatest Inventions: Inventions: 1st millennium BC (1000 BC to 1 BC)". http://whoinvented.blogspot.com.au/2008/05/1st-millennium-bc-encompasses-iron-age.html. Retrieved on 26 March 2018. 
  91. Finger (2001), page 66
  92. Srinivasan, Sharada (15 November 1994). "Wootz crucible steel: a newly discovered production site in South India". Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 5: 49–59. doi:10.5334/pia.60. 
  93. Coghlan, Herbert Henery (1977). Notes on prehistoric and early iron in the Old World (2nd ed.). Pitt Rivers Museum. pp. 99–100. 
  94. Sasisekharan, B. (1999). "Technology of Iron and Steel in Kodumanal". Indian Journal of History of Science 34. 
  95. Wagner (1993), 153, 157–158.
  96. Chamberlin (2007), page 80
  97. Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", The American Historical Review 65 (3), p. 516.
  98. 98.0 98.1 Pigott, Vincent C. (1999). The Archaeometallurgy of the Asian Old World. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. ISBN 0-924171-34-0, p. 191.
  99. Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 319–323.
  100. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "Linguistics"
  101. 101.0 101.1 Wagner (2001), 7, 36–37, 64–68.
  102. Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais (2006), 30.
  103. Gernet (1996), 69.
  104. Wagner (1993), 335.
  105. Pigott (1999), 177.
  106. 106.0 106.1 Selin, Helaine (2013). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 282. ISBN 9789401714167. https://books.google.com/books?id=GzjpCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA282. 
  107. Örjan Wikander (2008). "Chapter 6: Sources of Energy and Exploitation of Power". in John Peter Oleson. The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World. Oxford University Press. pp. 141–2. ISBN 978-0-19-518731-1. 
  108. Stavros I. Yannopoulos, Gerasimos Lyberatos, Nicolaos Theodossiou, Wang Li, Mohammad Valipour, Aldo Tamburrino, Andreas N. Angelakis (2015). "Evolution of Water Lifting Devices (Pumps) over the Centuries Worldwide". Water 7 (9): 5031–5060. MDPI. doi:10.3390/w7095031. 
  109. 109.0 109.1 109.2 Joseph Needham (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 2, p. 361. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
  110. 110.0 110.1 Adriana de Miranda (2007). Water architecture in the lands of Syria: the water-wheels. L'Erma di Bretschneider. pp. 38–9. ISBN 88-8265-433-8. 
  111. Juleff 1996
  112. Srinivasan & Ranganathan
  113. Moore, Frank Gardner (1950): "Three Canal Projects, Roman and Byzantine", American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 97–111 (99–101)
  114. Froriep, Siegfried (1986): "Ein Wasserweg in Bithynien. Bemühungen der Römer, Byzantiner und Osmanen", Antike Welt, 2nd Special Edition, pp. 39–50 (46)
  115. Schörner, Hadwiga (2000): "Künstliche Schiffahrtskanäle in der Antike. Der sogenannte antike Suez-Kanal", Skyllis, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 28–43 (33–35, 39)
  116. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/02/06/science/ancient-smelter-used-wind-to-make-high-grade-steel.html John Noble Wilford, "Ancient Smelter Used Wind To Make High-Grade Steel", New York Times, 6 February 1996.
  117. Pigott (1999), 183–184.
  118. MSN Encarta (2007), Diamond
  119. 119.0 119.1 Lewis, Michael (2000), "Theoretical Hydraulics, Automata, and Water Clocks", in Wikander, Örjan, Handbook of Ancient Water Technology, Technology and Change in History, 2, Leiden, pp. 343–369 (356f.), ISBN 90-04-11123-9 
  120. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "cashmere"
  121. 121.0 121.1 Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "Pagoda"
  122. B. H. M. W. Bohingamuwa (2000): "The water regulation technology of ancient Sri Lankan reservoirs: The Bisokotuwa sluice", p164.
  123. Wilson, Andrew (2002): "Machines, Power and the Ancient Economy", The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 92, pp. 1–32 (16) Template:Jstor
  124. Oleson, John Peter (2000): "Water-Lifting", in: Wikander, Örjan: "Handbook of Ancient Water Technology", Technology and Change in History, Vol. 2, Brill, Leiden, ISBN 90-04-11123-9, pp. 217–302 (233)
  125. Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 263–267.
  126. Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 70–71.
  127. Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 3, 649–650.
  128. "turbine." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 18 July 2007 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-45691>.
  129. 129.0 129.1 Ronald Watkins. Unknown Seas, p. 15.
  130. Ancient Indian use of Kamal
  131. Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", The American Historical Review 65 (3), p. 519.
  132. John M. Hobson (2004), The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation, p. 141, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521547245.
  133. Hoepfner, Wolfram (1970), "Ein Kombinationsschloss aus dem Kerameikos", Archäologischer Anzeiger 85 (2): 210–213 
  134. Paper - one of the most important inventions of the last two millennia
  135. Zaheer Baber (1996), The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India, p. 57, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791429199
  136. Livingston, Morna & Beach, Milo (2002), Steps to Water: The Ancient Stepwells of India, p. 19, Princeton Architectural Press, ISBN 1568983247
  137. R. Balasubramaniam (2000), On the Corrosion Resistance of the Delhi Iron Pillar, Corrosion Science 42: 2103-29
  138. Lakwete, Angela (2003). Inventing the Cotton Gin: Machine and Myth in Antebellum America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801873942. https://books.google.com/books?id=uOMaGVnPfBcC. 
  139. Zaheer Baber (1996), The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India, pp. 56-7, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791429199
  140. Encyclopedia Britannica (2002), "Chess: Ancient precursors and related games"
  141. 141.0 141.1 MSN Encarta (2008). Pachisi. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "EncartaP" defined multiple times with different content
  142. Schafer (1963), pages 160-161
  143. Bedini (1994), pages 69-80
  144. Murray, H. J. R. (1913). A History of Chess. Benjamin Press (originally published by Oxford University Press). ISBN 0-936317-01-9. OCLC 13472872. 
  145. 145.00 145.01 145.02 145.03 145.04 145.05 145.06 145.07 145.08 145.09 145.10 145.11 145.12 145.13 Georges C. Anawati, "Arabic alchemy", p. 868, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 853-902)
  146. 146.0 146.1 146.2 Robert Briffault (1938), The Making of Humanity, p. 195
  147. 147.0 147.1 George Rafael, A is for Arabs, Salon.com, January 8, 2002.
  148. Deborah Rowe, How Islam has kept us out of the 'Dark Ages', Science and Society, Channel 4, May 2004.
  149. O'Connor, J. J. and E. F. Robertson. 2000. Indian Numerals, MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, Scotland.
  150. Sharif Kaf al-Ghazal, Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2004 (3), pp. 3-9 [8].
  151. 151.0 151.1 S. Hadzovic (1997). "Pharmacy and the great contribution of Arab-Islamic science to its development", Medicinski Arhiv 51 (1-2), p. 47-50.
  152. 152.00 152.01 152.02 152.03 152.04 152.05 152.06 152.07 152.08 152.09 152.10 152.11 Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992). Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B. Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434.
  153. 153.0 153.1 Sir Glubb, John Bagot (1969), A Short History of the Arab Peoples, http://www.cyberistan.org/islamic/quote2.html#glubb, retrieved on 25 January 2008 
  154. Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the Islamic Medical Association, 2002 (2): 2-9 [7-8]
  155. The Beginning of the Paper Industry, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation
  156. Dick, Michael S. (1998). The Ancient Ayurvedic Writings. Retrieved May 19, 2005.
  157. Gaudiosi, Monica M. (April 1988), "The Influence of the Islamic Law of Waqf on the Development of the Trust in England: The Case of Merton College", University of Pennsylvania Law Review 136 (4): 1231-1261 
  158. Hudson, A. (2003), Equity and Trusts (3rd ed.), London: Cavendish Publishing, ISBN 1-85941-729-9 
  159. C. Wayne Smith, Joe Tom Cothren (1999), Cotton: Origin, History, Technology, and Production, p. viii, John Wiley and Sons. Technology & Industrial Arts, ISBN 0471180459
  160. 160.0 160.1 160.2 160.3 160.4 Ahmad Y Hassan, Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources.
  161. Distillation, Hutchinson Encyclopedia, 2007
  162. 162.0 162.1 162.2 162.3 Derewenda, Zygmunt S. (2007), "On wine, chirality and crystallography", Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography 64: 246–258 [247], doi:10.1107/S0108767307054293 
  163. 163.00 163.01 163.02 163.03 163.04 163.05 163.06 163.07 163.08 163.09 163.10 Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries". Ahmad Y Hassan. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2072.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-26. 
  164. Khairallah, Amin A. Outline of Arabic Contributions to Medicine, chapter 10. Beirut, 1946.
  165. 165.0 165.1 165.2 Paul Vallely, How Islamic Inventors Changed the World, The Independent, 11 Mar 2006.
  166. Olga Pikovskaya, Repaying the West's Debt to Islam, BusinessWeek, March 29, 2005.
  167. 167.0 167.1 167.2 167.3 167.4 167.5 167.6 Hassan, Ahmad Y. "The Colouring of Gemstones, The Purifying and Making of Pearls And Other Useful Recipes". History of Science and Technology in Islam. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2092.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-29. 
  168. Ahmad Y Hassan, Lustre Glass and Lazaward And Zaffer Cobalt Oxide In Islamic And Western Lustre Glass And Ceramics, History of Science and Technology in Islam.
  169. Mason, Robert B. (1995). "New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas: Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture XII. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004103147. 
  170. "rabab (musical instrument) – Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/487848/rabab. Retrieved on 2013-08-17. 
  171. Pacey, Arnold (1991). Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-year History. MIT Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-262-66072-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=X7e8rHL1lf4C&pg=PA80. 
  172. Sharada Srinivasan; Srinivasa Ranganathan (2004). India's Legendary Wootz Steel: An Advanced Material of the Ancient World. National Institute of Advanced Studies. OCLC 82439861. 
  173. Hill, Donald (2013). A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. Routledge. pp. 163-166. ISBN 9781317761570. https://books.google.com/books?id=oMceAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA163. 
  174. "ʿūd | musical instrument". https://www.britannica.com/art/ud. Retrieved on 6 April 2019. 
  175. "Medical Care In Islamic Tradition During The Middle Ages" (7 July 2012). Medical Education 3 (7). doi:10.9754/journal.wmc.2012.003549. 
  176. Lucas, Adam (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, Brill Publishers, pp. 65 & 84, ISBN 90-04-14649-0 
  177. Giese-Vögeli, Francine (2007). Das islamische Rippengewölbe : Ursprung, Form, Verbreitung. Berlin: Gebr. Mann. ISBN 978-3-7861-2550-1. 
  178. Meri, Josef W. (2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 1135455961. https://books.google.com/books?id=c1ZsBgAAQBAJ&pg=PA106. 
  179. Burns, Robert I. (1996), "Paper comes to the West, 800–1400", in Lindgren, Uta, Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800 bis 1400. Tradition und Innovation (4th ed.), Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, pp. 413–422 (414), ISBN 3-7861-1748-9 
  180. Al-Hassani, Woodcock and Saoud, "1001 Inventions, Muslim heritage in Our World", FSTC Publishing, 2006, reprinted 2007, pp.218–219.
  181. Alrifai, Tariq (2015). Islamic Finance and the New Financial System: An Ethical Approach to Preventing Future Financial Crises. John Wiley & Sons. p. 11. ISBN 9781118990698. https://books.google.com/books?id=8CesBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA11. 
  182. Broemeling, Lyle D. (1 November 2011). "An Account of Early Statistical Inference in Arab Cryptology". The American Statistician 65 (4): 255–257. doi:10.1198/tas.2011.10191. 
  183. Kahn, David (1996). The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781439103555. https://books.google.com.sa/books?id=3S8rhOEmDIIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=david+kahn+the+codebreakers&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiG8OW9_L3aAhXCwxQKHS6hAA0Q6AEIIzAA#v=snippet&q=Arabs%20cryptology%20born&f=false. 
  184. 184.0 184.1 184.2 184.3 David A. King, "Islamic Astronomy", in Christopher Walker (1999), ed., Astronomy before the telescope, p. 167-168. British Museum Press. ISBN 0-7141-2733-7.
  185. David A. King (2002). "A Vetustissimus Arabic Text on the Quadrans Vetus", Journal for the History of Astronomy 33, p. 237-255 [238-239].
  186. Salma Khadra Jayyusi and Manuela Marin (1994), The Legacy of Muslim Spain, p. 117, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004095993
  187. 187.0 187.1 187.2 Lebling Jr., Robert W. (July-August 2003), "Flight of the Blackbird", Saudi Aramco World: 24–33, http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200407/flight.of.the.blackbird-.compilation..htm, retrieved on 28 June 2008 
  188. 188.0 188.1 188.2 Otto Mayr (1970). The Origins of Feedback Control, MIT Press.
  189. 189.0 189.1 189.2 189.3 189.4 189.5 189.6 Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering, History of Science and Technology in Islam.
  190. 190.0 190.1 Teun Koetsier (2001). "On the prehistory of programmable machines: musical automata, looms, calculators", Mechanism and Machine theory 36, p. 590-591.
  191. 191.00 191.01 191.02 191.03 191.04 191.05 191.06 191.07 191.08 191.09 191.10 191.11 191.12 191.13 191.14 191.15 191.16 Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, p. 64-69. (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering)
  192. 192.0 192.1 Fowler, Charles B. (October 1967), "The Museum of Music: A History of Mechanical Instruments", Music Educators Journal 54 (2): 45–49, doi:10.2307/3391092 
  193. Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources". History of Science and Technology in Islam. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Notes/Notes%207.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-29. 
  194. 194.0 194.1 Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2 (2): 97-111 [100]
  195. Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Assessment of Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna". History of Science and Technology in Islam. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2093.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-29. 
  196. 196.0 196.1 196.2 196.3 196.4 Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2 (2), p. 97-111 [100-101].
  197. Ismail b. Ali Ebu'l Feda history, Weltgeschichte, hrsg. von Fleischer and Reiske 1789-94, 1831.
  198. Alatas, Syed Farid (2006), "From Jami`ah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue", Current Sociology 54 (1): 112–32, doi:10.1177/0011392106058837 
  199. The Guinness Book Of Records, 1998, p. 242, ISBN 0-5535-7895-2
  200. 200.0 200.1 200.2 First Flights, Saudi Aramco World, January-February 1964, p. 8-9.
  201. Zayn Bilkadi (University of California, Berkeley), "The Oil Weapons", Saudi Aramco World, January-February 1995, p. 20-27.
  202. Muslin, Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh (2008)
  203. 203.0 203.1 Ahmad, S. (July-September 2005), "Rise and Decline of the Economy of Bengal", Asian Affairs 27 (3): 5-26  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Muslin" defined multiple times with different content
  204. Mason, Robert B. (1995). "New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas: Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture XII. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004103147. 
  205. David A. King, "Islamic Astronomy", pp. 168-169
  206. King, David A. (2005), In Synchrony with the Heavens, Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Medieval Islamic Civilization: Instruments of Mass Calculation, Brill Publishers, ISBN 900414188X 
  207. King, David A. (December 2003), "14th-Century England or 9th-Century Baghdad? New Insights on the Elusive Astronomical Instrument Called Navicula de Venetiis", Centaurus 45 (1-4): 204-226 
  208. 208.0 208.1 Ahmad Y Hassan, Donald Routledge Hill (1986). Islamic Technology: An illustrated history, p. 54. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42239-6.
  209. Alatas, Syed Farid (2006), "From Jami`ah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue", Current Sociology 54 (1): 112–132 [123–4], doi:10.1177/0011392106058837 
  210. F. L. Lewis (1992), Applied Optimal Control and Estimation, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.
  211. 211.0 211.1 211.2 211.3 Adam Lucas (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, p. 65. BRILL, ISBN 9004146490.
  212. Richard W. Bulliet (1987), "Medieval Arabic Tarsh: A Forgotten Chapter in the History of Printing", Journal of the American Oriental Society 107 (3), p. 427-438.
  213. Elly Dekker (1995), "An unrecorded medieval astrolabe quadrant from c. 1300", Annals of Science 52 (1), p. 1-47 [6].
  214. Robert Hannah (1997). "The Mapping of the Heavens by Peter Whitfield", Imago Mundi 49, pp. 161-162.
  215. 215.0 215.1 215.2 King, David A., "Astronomy and Islamic society", pp. 163–8 , in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 1 & 3, Routledge, pp. 128-184, ISBN 0415124107  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "King-Astronomy" defined multiple times with different content
  216. 216.0 216.1 216.2 Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 766-9, in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Routledge, pp. 751-795, ISBN 0415124107 
  217. Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 781, in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Routledge, pp. 751-95, ISBN 0415124107 
  218. 218.0 218.1 Fielding H. Garrison, History of Medicine:
    "The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization, such as street lamps, window-panes, firework, stringed instruments, cultivated fruits, perfumes, spices, etc..."
  219. 219.0 219.1 219.2 The World's First Soft Drink. 1001 Inventions, 2006.
  220. Juliette Rossant (2005), The World's First Soft Drink, Saudi Aramco World, September/October 2005, pp. 36-9
  221. 221.0 221.1 221.2 Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 759, in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Routledge, pp. 751-795, ISBN 0415124107 
  222. 222.0 222.1 Adam Lucas (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, p. 62. BRILL, ISBN 9004146490.
  223. 223.0 223.1 Peter Barrett (2004), Science and Theology Since Copernicus: The Search for Understanding, p. 18, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 056708969X.
  224. Micheau, Francoise, "The Scientific Institutions in the Medieval Near East", pp. 988–991  in Morelon, Régis; Rashed, Roshdi (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 3, Routledge, ISBN 0415124107 
  225. L. Gari (2002), "Arabic Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of the Thirteenth Century", Environment and History 8 (4), pp. 475-488.
  226. A. Al Dayela and N. al-Zuhair (2006), "Single drug therapy in the treatment of male sexual/erectile dysfunction in Islamic medicine", Urology 68 (1): 253-4
  227. Regis Morelon, "General Survey of Arabic Astronomy", pp. 9-10, in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 1 & 3, Routledge, pp. 1-19, ISBN 0415124107 
  228. The invention of cosmetics. 1001 Inventions.
  229. The Valuable Contribution of al-Razi (Rhazes) to the History of Pharmacy, FSTC
  230. 230.0 230.1 "9 World Changing Inventions from the Middle East". 5 December 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20150403005901/thaqafamagazine.com/2014/12/05/inventions-arab-middle-east/. Retrieved on 26 March 2018. 
  231. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2001), Science and Technology in Islam: Technology and applied sciences, pages 65–69, UNESCO
  232. Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources". History of Science and Technology in Islam. http://www.history-science-technology.com/notes/notes7.html. Retrieved on 2014-04-19. 
  233. The Economist: "Liquid fire – The Arabs discovered how to distil alcohol. They still do it best, say some" December 18, 2003
  234. Walton, Michelle; Museum of Islamic Art, Dawḥah, Qatar (2013). Imperfect Perfection - Early Islamic Glass (English ed.). A&C Black. ISBN 9789992194614. https://books.google.com/?id=0XUDb7qNdoEC&pg=PA18&dq=perfumes+Al-Kindi#v=onepage&q=perfumes%20Al-Kindi&f=false. 
  235. Gabriel, Richard A. (2012). Man and Wound in the Ancient World: A History of Military Medicine from Sumer to the Fall of Constantinople. Potomac Books. p. 210. ISBN 9781597978484. https://books.google.com/books?id=KDi8CB3B6vgC&pg=PA218. 
  236. Jack Kelly Gunpowder: Alchemy, Bombards, and Pyrotechnics: The History of the Explosive that Changed the World, Perseus Books Group: 2005, ISBN 0465037224, 9780465037223: pp. 2-5
  237. Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 8–9, 80–82.
  238. Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 70–73, 120–124.
  239. Gernet (1996), 311.
  240. Day & McNeil (1996), 785.
  241. 241.0 241.1 Bourbaki (1998), page 46
  242. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (2007). algebra
  243. Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1): 1–30 [10–1 & 27]
  244. Finger, Stanley (1994). Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations Into Brain Function. Oxford University Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-19-514694-3. 
  245. 245.0 245.1 245.2 Gallin, John I.; Ognibene, Frederick P.; Johnson, Laura Lee (2017). Principles and Practice of Clinical Research. Academic Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780128499047. https://books.google.com/books?id=JQVQCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA3. 
  246. Lucas, Adam (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, Brill Publishers, p. 65, ISBN 90-04-14649-0 
  247. Banu Musa (authors), Donald Routledge Hill (translator) (1979), The book of ingenious devices (Kitāb al-ḥiyal), Springer, p. 23, ISBN 90-277-0833-9 
  248. 248.0 248.1 Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, p. 64-69. (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Hill" defined multiple times with different content
  249. Young, M. J. L. (1990). The Cambridge history of Arabic literature. Cambridge University Press. p. 264. ISBN 0-521-32763-6. 
  250. Banu Musa (authors), Donald Routledge Hill (translator) (1979), The book of ingenious devices (Kitāb al-ḥiyal), Springer, p. 21, ISBN 90-277-0833-9 
  251. "Loudspeakers Optional: A history of non-loudspeaker-based electroacoustic music" (12 July 2017). Organised Sound 22 (2): 195–205. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/S1355771817000103. 
  252. "The Forgotten History of Repetitive Audio Technologies" (12 July 2017). Organised Sound 22 (2): 187–194. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/S1355771817000097. 
  253. Holt, Tonie; Holt, Valmai (2006). Major & Mrs Holt's Pocket Battlefield Guide to Ypres & Passchendaele. Casemate Publishers. p. 7. ISBN 9781844153770. https://books.google.com/books?id=X1esXGdTiScC&pg=PA7. 
  254. Lienhard, John H. (1988). "The Flying Monk". University of Houston. http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi3.htm. Retrieved on 2015-02-06. 
  255. Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2 (2), p. 97-111 [100f.]
  256. Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2 (2), p. 97-111 [101]
  257. Kalın, İbrahim (2014). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 137. ISBN 9780199812578. https://books.google.com/books?id=or-6BwAAQBAJ&pg=PA137. 
  258. Forbes, Robert James (1958). Studies in Early Petroleum History. Brill Publishers. p. 149. https://books.google.com/books?id=eckUAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA149. 
  259. Kent, James A.; Bommaraju, Tilak V.; Barnicki, Scott D. (2017). Handbook of Industrial Chemistry and Biotechnology. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 18. ISBN 9783319522876. https://books.google.com/books?id=Jx8vDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA18. 
  260. Zayn Bilkadi (University of California, Berkeley), "The Oil Weapons", Saudi Aramco World, January–February 1995, pp. 20–27.
  261. Holmyard, E. J. (2012). Alchemy. Courier Corporation. p. 89. ISBN 9780486151144. https://books.google.com/books?id=vHz7VQz-ucgC&pg=PA89. 
  262. Modanlou, Houchang D. (November 2008). "A tribute to Zakariya Razi (865 – 925 AD), an Iranian pioneer scholar". Archives of Iranian Medicine 11 (6): 673–677. PMID 18976043. “Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi, known in the West as Rhazes, was born in 865 AD in the ancient city of Rey, Near Tehran. A musician during his youth he became an alchemist. He discovered alcohol and sulfuric acid. He classified substances as plants, organic, and inorganic.” 
  263. Schlosser, Stefan (May 2011). "Distillation – from Bronze Age till today". “Al-Razi (865–925) was the preeminent Pharmacist and physician of his time [5]. The discovery of alcohol, first to produce acids such as sulfuric acid, writing up extensive notes on diseases such as smallpox and chickenpox, a pioneer in ophthalmology, author of first book on pediatrics, making leading contributions in inorganic and organic chemistry, also the author of several philosophical works.” 
  264. Dr. Emily Winterburn (National Maritime Museum) (2005). "Using an Astrolabe". Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation. http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=529. Retrieved on 2008-01-22. 
  265. Bosworth, C. E. (Autumn 1981), "A Mediaeval Islamic Prototype of the Fountain Pen?", Journal of Semitic Studies XXVl (i) 
  266. ""Origins of the Fountain Pen "". Muslimheritage.com. http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?articleID=365. Retrieved on September 18, 2007. 
  267. Lindsay, James E. (2005), Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 131, ISBN 0313322708 
  268. O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn al-Khidr Al-Khujandi", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews .
  269. "Islam, Knowledge, and Science". University of Southern California. http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/introduction/woi_knowledge.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-22. 
  270. Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 783, in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 1 & 3, Routledge, pp. 751-95, ISBN 0415124107 
  271. David A. King, "Reflections on some new studies on applied science in Islamic societies (8th-19th centuries)", Islam & Science, June 2004
  272. David J Roxburgh (2000), Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World, p. 21, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004116699.
  273. Josef W. Meri (2006), Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, p. 75, Taylor and Francis, ISBN 0415966914.
  274. David A. King (1999), World-maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca: Innovation and Tradition in Islamic Science, p. 17, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004113673.
  275. Kunitzsch, Paul (2003), "The Transmission of Hindu-Arabic Numerals Reconsidered", in J. P. Hogendijk; A. I. Sabra, The Enterprise of Science in Islam: New Perspectives, MIT Press, pp. 3–22 (12–13), ISBN 978-0-262-19482-2 
  276. Berggren, J. Lennart (2007). "Mathematics in Medieval Islam". The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam: A Sourcebook. Princeton University Press. p. 518. ISBN 978-0-691-11485-9. 
  277. O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu'l Hasan Ahmad ibn Ibrahim Al-Uqlidisi", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews .
  278. Bosworth, C. E. (1981). "A Mediaeval Islamic Prototype of the Fountain Pen?". Journal of Semitic Studies 26 (1): 229–234. doi:10.1093/jss/26.2.229. “We wish to construct a pen which can be used for writing without having recourse to an ink-holder and whose ink will be contained inside it. A person can fill it with ink and write whatever he likes. The writer can put it in his sleeve or anywhere he wishes and it will not stain nor will any drop of ink leak out of it. The ink will flow only when there is an intention to write. We are unaware of anyone previously ever constructing (a pen such as this) and an indication of 'penetrating wisdom' to whoever contemplates it and realises its exact significance and purpose. I exclaimed, 'Is this possible?' He replied, 'It is possible if God so wills'.” 
  279. O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn al-Khidr Al-Khujandi", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews .
  280. Ingle, John Ide; Baumgartner, J. Craig (2008). Ingle's Endodontics. PMPH-USA. p. 1281."The individual first credited with the principle of extraction and replantation was an Arabian physician by the name of Abulcasis who practiced in the eleventh century."
  281. Ingle, John Ide; Bakland, Leif K. (2002). Endodontics. PMPH-USA. p. 727."Abulcasis, an Arabian physician practicing in the eleventh century, is the first credited with recording the principle of extraction/replantation."
  282. Shevel, E (April 2004). "Role of the extracranial arteries in migraine headache: a review.". Cranio : The Journal of Craniomandibular Practice 22 (2): 132–6. doi:10.1179/crn.2004.017. PMID 15134413. 
  283. Piero Ariotti (Winter, 1968). "Galileo on the Isochrony of the Pendulum", Isis 59 (4), p. 414.
  284. 284.0 284.1 284.2 284.3 Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine 2 (2002): 2-9 [7].
  285. 285.0 285.1 285.2 285.3 Finger, Stanley (1994), Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations Into Brain Function, Oxford University Press, p. 70, ISBN 0195146948 
  286. Ancient surgery
  287. Zafarul-Islam Khan, At The Threshold (sic) Of A New Millennium – II, The Milli Gazette.
  288. 288.0 288.1 288.2 288.3 288.4 Khaled al-Hadidi (1978), "The Role of Muslem Scholars in Oto-rhino-Laryngology", The Egyptian Journal of O.R.L. 4 (1), p. 1-15. (cf. Ear, Nose and Throat Medical Practice in Muslim Heritage, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization.)
  289. 289.0 289.1 Abdul Nasser Kaadan PhD, "Albucasis and Extraction of Bladder Stone", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2004 (3): 28-33.
  290. 290.0 290.1 A. I. Makki. "Needles & Pins", AlShindagah 68, January-February 2006.
  291. 291.0 291.1 291.2 Sigrid Hunke (1969), Allah Sonne Uber Abendland, Unser Arabische Erbe, Second Edition, p. 279-280:
    "The science of medicine has gained a great and extremely important discovery and that is the use of general anaesthetics for surgical operations, and how unique, efficient, and merciful for those who tried it the Muslim anaesthetic was. It was quite different from the drinks the Indians, Romans and Greeks were forcing their patients to have for relief of pain. There had been some allegations to credit this discovery to an Italian or to an Alexandrian, but the truth is and history proves that, the art of using the anaesthetic sponge is a pure Muslim technique, which was not known before. The sponge used to be dipped and left in a mixture prepared from cannabis, opium, hyoscyamus and a plant called Zoan."

    (cf. Prof. Dr. M. Taha Jasser, Anaesthesia in Islamic medicine and its influence on Western civilization, Conference on Islamic Medicine)
  292. 292.0 292.1 Patricia Skinner (2001), Unani-tibbi, Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine
  293. Salah Zaimeche (2002), The Muslim Pioneers of Astronomy, FSTC
  294. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1993), An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines, pp. 135-6, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791415163
  295. Robert Briffault (1938), The Making of Humanity, p. 191
  296. Marlene Ericksen (2000). Healing with Aromatherapy, p. 9. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0658003828.
  297. 297.0 297.1 Khwarizm, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.
  298. 298.0 298.1 Will Durant (1950). The Story of Civilization IV: The Age of Faith, p. 239-45.
  299. 299.0 299.1 299.2 299.3 Robert E. Hall (1973). "Al-Khazini", Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. VII, p. 346.
  300. Marshall Clagett (1961). The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages, p. 64. University of Wisconsin Press.
  301. Donald Routledge Hill (1985). "Al-Biruni's mechanical calendar", Annals of Science 42, p. 139-163.
  302. Tuncer Oren (2001). "Advances in Computer and Information Sciences: From Abacus to Holonic Agents", Turk J Elec Engin 9 (1), p. 63-70 [64].
  303. Islam, Knowledge, and Science. University of Southern California.
  304. Kriss, Timothy C.; Kriss, Vesna Martich (April 1998), "History of the Operating Microscope: From Magnifying Glass to Microneurosurgery", Neurosurgery 42 (4): 899–907, doi:10.1097/00006123-199804000-00116 
  305. Dr. Nader El-Bizri, "Ibn al-Haytham or Alhazen", in Josef W. Meri (2006), Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopaedia, Vol. II, p. 343-345, Routledge, New York, London.
  306. R. S. Elliott (1966), Electromagnetics, Chapter 1, McGraw-Hill
  307. 307.0 307.1 Nicholas J. Wade, Stanley Finger (2001), "The eye as an optical instrument: from camera obscura to Helmholtz's perspective", Perception 30 (10), p. 1157-1177.
  308. Tyler, Royall (2003), The Tale of Genji, Penguin Classics, pp. i-ii & xii, ISBN 014243714X 
  309. Tyler, Royall (2003), The Tale of Genji, Penguin Classics, p. xxvi, ISBN 014243714X 
  310. Jorge Luis Borges, The Total Library:
    [The Tale of Genji, as translated by Arthur Waley,] is written with an almost miraculous naturalness, and what interests us is not the exoticism — the horrible word — but rather the human passions of the novel. Such interest is just: Murasaki's work is what one would quite precisely call a psychological novel. ... I dare to recommend this book to those who read me. The English translation that has inspired this brief insufficient note is called The Tale of Genji.
  311. Prof. Nil Sari (Istanbul University, Cerrahpasha Medical School) (06 June, 2007). "Hindiba: A Drug for Cancer Treatment in Muslim Heritage". FSTC Limited. http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=707. 
  312. 312.0 312.1 Nurdeen Deuraseh, "Ahadith of the Prophet on Healing in Three Things (al-Shifa’ fi Thalatha): An Interpretational", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2004 (3): 14-20 [18].
  313. Yalcin Tekol (2007), "The medieval physician Avicenna used an herbal calcium channel blocker, Taxus baccata L.", Phytotherapy Research 21 (7): 701-2.
  314. Philip K. Hitti (cf. Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992), Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B, Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434).
  315. Dr. Z. Idrisi, PhD (2005). The Muslim Agricultural Revolution and its influence on Europe. The Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization, UK.
  316. Dr. A. Zahoor (1997). Al-Zarqali (Arzachel), University of Indonesia.
  317. Sivin (1995), III, 22.
  318. Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais (2006), 162.
  319. Ahmad Y Hassan, Flywheel Effect for a Saqiya.
  320. Glick, Thomas F.; Livesey, Steven John; Wallis, Faith (2005), Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, p. 30, ISBN 0415969301 
  321. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008). calico
  322. Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 766, in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Routledge, pp. 751-795, ISBN 0415124107 
  323. G. Wiet, V. Elisseeff, P. Wolff, J. Naudu (1975). History of Mankind, Vol 3: The Great medieval Civilisations, p. 649. George Allen & Unwin Ltd, UNESCO.
  324. "The Tale of Genji" Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.
  325. The Japanese. Reischauer, Edwin O. Belknap Press. Cambridge, MA 1980. p. 49. ISBN 0-674-47178-4.
  326. Smith, A. Mark, ed. and trans. (2001) Alhacen's Theory of visual perception : a critical edition, with English translation and commentary, of the first three books of Alhacen's De aspectibus, [the medieval latin version of Ibn al-Haytham's Kitāb al-Manāẓir], Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 2 vols: 91(#4 — Vol 1 Commentary and Latin text); 91(#5 — Vol 2 English translation). (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society), 2001. Books I-III (2001) Vol 1 Commentary and Latin text via JSTOR; Vol 2 English translation, Notes, Bibl. via JSTOR
  327. User, Super. "History of Camera Obscuras – Kirriemuir Camera Obscura". http://www.kirriemuircameraobscura.com/history-camera-obscuras. 
  328. Eder, JOSEF MARIA (1945). HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. p. 37. https://archive.org/stream/EderHistoryPhotography/aa045%20-%20ederHistoryPhotography_djvu.txt. 
  329. "History of the Operating Microscope: From Magnifying Glass to Micro neurosurgery" (April 1998). Neurosurgery 42 (4): 899–907. doi:10.1097/00006123-199804000-00116. PMID 9574655. 
  330. Jim Al-Khalili (4 January 2009). "The 'first true scientist'". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7810846.stm. 
  331. Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa (2010). Mind, Brain, and Education Science: A Comprehensive Guide to the New Brain-Based Teaching. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-393-70607-9. "Alhazen (or Al-Haytham; 965–1039) was perhaps one of the greatest physicists of all times and a product of the Islamic Golden Age or Islamic Renaissance (7th–13th centuries). He made significant contributions to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, and visual perception and is primarily attributed as the inventor of the scientific method, for which author Bradley Steffens (2006) describes him as the "first scientist"." 
  332. Diana Twede (2005). "The Origins of Paper Based Packaging". Conference on Historical Analysis & Research in Marketing Proceedings 12: 288–300 [289]. Retrieved on March 20, 2010. 
  333. Pacey, Arnold (1991) [1990]. Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-Year History (First MIT Press paperback ed.). Cambridge MA: The MIT Press. pp. 23-24. 
  334. Maillard, Adam P. Fraise, Peter A. Lambert, Jean-Yves (2007). Principles and Practice of Disinfection, Preservation and Sterilization. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons. p. 4. ISBN 0470755067. 
  335. Parker, L. M., “Medieval Traders as International Change Agents: A Comparison with Twentieth Century International Accounting Firms,” The Accounting Historians Journal, 16(2) (1989): 107-118.
  336. MEDIEVAL TRADERS AS INTERNATIONAL CHANGE AGENTS: A COMMENT, Michael Scorgie, The Accounting Historians Journal, Vol. 21, No. 1 (June 1994), pp. 137-143
  337. 337.0 337.1 337.2 337.3 337.4 Hassan, Ahmad Y, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering, History of Science and Technology in Islam Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Hassan" defined multiple times with different content
  338. Donald Routledge Hill (1996). A history of engineering in classical and medieval times. Routledge. pp. 203, 223, 242. ISBN 0-415-15291-7. 
  339. "Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Ibn Yahya Al-Zarqali | Muslim Heritage". http://muslimheritage.com/article/abu-ishaq-ibrahim-ibn-yahya-al-zarqali#ftn35. 
  340. Letcher, Trevor M. (2017). Wind energy engineering: a handbook for onshore and offshore wind turbines. Academic Press. pp. 127-143. ISBN 0128094516. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128094518000072. "Ibn Bassal (AD 1038–75) of Al Andalus (Andalusia) pioneered the use of a flywheel mechanism in the noria and saqiya to smooth out the delivery of power from the driving device to the driven machine" 
  341. Ahmad Y Hassan, Flywheel Effect for a Saqiya.
  342. Needham, Volume 5, Part 1, 201–202.
  343. Gernet (1996), 335.
  344. Bowman (2000), 599.
  345. Day & McNeil (1996), 70.
  346. Lorch, R. P. (1976), "The Astronomical Instruments of Jabir ibn Aflah and the Torquetum", Centaurus 20 (1): 11–34, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0498.1976.tb00214.x 
  347. Harding, David (1990). Weapons: An International Encyclopedia from 5000 B.C. to 2000 A.D.. Diane Publishing Company. p. 111. ISBN 0756784360. http://books.google.com/books?id=LeYSxhK62wUC&printsec=frontcover#PPA111,M1. 
  348. Linear astrolabe, Encyclopædia Britannica.
  349. First Birds' Inn: About the Sport of Racing Pigeons
  350. Abdel Aziz al-Jaraki (2007), When Ridhwan al-Sa’ati Anteceded Big Ben by More than Six Centuries, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.
  351. Scott Farrell, Weaponry: The Trebuchet
  352. Philip Daileader, On the Social Origins of Medieval Institutions
  353. Jim Bradbury, Medieval Siege
  354. 101 gadgets that changed the world
  355. Roberto Moreno, Koenraad Van Cleempoel, David King (2002). "A Recently Discovered Sixteenth-Century Spanish Astrolabe", Annals of Science 59 (4), p. 331-362 [333].
  356. David A. King (1984). "Architecture and Astronomy: The Ventilators of Medieval Cairo and Their Secrets", Journal of the American Oriental Society 104 (1), p. 97-133.
  357. Hugh N. Kennedy (1985), "From Polis To Madina: Urban Change In Late Antique And Early Islamic Syria", Past & Present (Oxford University Press) 106 (1): 3–27 [10–1], doi:10.1093/past/106.1.3 
  358. Lorch, R. P. (1976). "The Astronomical Instruments of Jabir ibn Aflah and the Torquetum". Centaurus 20 (1): 11–34. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0498.1976.tb00214.x. Bibcode1976Cent...20...11L. 
  359. Satō, Tsugitaka (1997). State and Rural Society in Medieval Islam: Sultans, Muqtaʻs, and Fallahun. BRILL. pp. 119, 211, 215. ISBN 9789004106499. https://books.google.com/books?id=MycQL-9_bqwC. 
  360. Bradbury, Jim (1992). The Medieval Siege. The Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-312-7. 
  361. "Arms and Men: The Trebuchet". Historynet.com. http://www.historynet.com/weaponry-the-trebuchet.htm. Retrieved on 2016-08-29. 
  362. Tom and Mary Anne Evans. Guitars: From the Renaissance to Rock. Paddington Press Ltd 1977 p.16
  363. Houtsma, M.Th. (1993). E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. 4. Brill. pp. 1011–. ISBN 978-90-04-09790-2. 
  364. Georges Ifrah (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quatum Computer, p. 171, Trans. E.F. Harding, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (See [3])
  365. Professor Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (cf. The Automata of Al-Jazari, Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul.)
  366. 366.0 366.1 A 13th Century Programmable Robot. University of Sheffield.
  367. Ancient Discoveries, Episode 11: Ancient Robots, History Channel, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxjbaQl0ad8, retrieved on 6 September 2008 
  368. 368.0 368.1 368.2 368.3 Howard R. Turner (1997), Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction, p. 181, University of Texas Press, ISBN 0292781490.
  369. 369.0 369.1 Donald Routledge Hill, "Engineering", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. 2, p. 751-795 [776]. Routledge, London and New York.
  370. Ahmad Y Hassan, Al-Jazari and the History of the Water Clock
  371. Ibn al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (ed. 1974), The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, translated and annotated by Donald Routledge Hill, Dordrecht / D. Reidel, part II
  372. Silvio A. Bedini, Francis R. Maddison (1966). "Mechanical Universe: The Astrarium of Giovanni de' Dondi", Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 56 (5), p. 1-69.
  373. 373.0 373.1 Kennedy, Edward S. (1962), "Review: The Observatory in Islam and Its Place in the General History of the Observatory by Aydin Sayili", Isis 53 (2): 237-239 
  374. 374.00 374.01 374.02 374.03 374.04 374.05 374.06 374.07 374.08 374.09 374.10 Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Gunpowder Composition for Rockets and Cannon in Arabic Military Treatises In Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries". Ahmad Y Hassan. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%202.htm. Retrieved on 2008-06-08. 
  375. Emilie Savage-Smith (1988), "Gleanings from an Arabist's Workshop: Current Trends in the Study of Medieval Islamic Science and Medicine", Isis 79 (2): 246-266 [263].
  376. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521547245.
  377. 377.0 377.1 Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 771, in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Routledge, pp. 751-95, ISBN 0415124107 
  378. Augustyn, pages 27-28
  379. Ancient Discoveries, Episode 12: Machines of the East. History Channel. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PwGfw1YW9Js. Retrieved on 2008-09-07. 
  380. Cropley, David (2019). Homo Problematis Solvendis - Problem-solving Man: A History of Human Creativity. Springer. pp. 50-51. ISBN 9789811331015. https://books.google.com/books?id=AHyGDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA50. 
  381. Banu Musa (authors), Donald Routledge Hill (translator) (1979), The book of ingenious devices (Kitāb al-ḥiyal), Springer, pp. 23–4, ISBN 90-277-0833-9 
  382. Lotfi Romdhane & Saïd Zeghloul (2010), "al-Jazari (1136–1206)", History of Mechanism and Machine Science (Springer) 7: 1–21, doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2346-9, ISBN 978-90-481-2346-9, ISSN 1875-3442 
  383. Donald Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, pp. 64–9 (cf. Donald Hill, Mechanical Engineering Template:Webarchive)
  384. Fowler, Charles B. (October 1967). "The Museum of Music: A History of Mechanical Instruments". Music Educators Journal 54 (2): 45–49. doi:10.2307/3391092. 
  385. Fowler, Charles B. (October 1967). "The Museum of Music: A History of Mechanical Instruments". Music Educators Journal 54 (2): 45–49. doi:10.2307/3391092. 
  386. Fowler, Charles B. (October 1967), "The Museum of Music: A History of Mechanical Instruments", Music Educators Journal (MENC_ The National Association for Music Education) 54 (2): 45–49, doi:10.2307/3391092 
  387. Thomas Christensen (2007). "Did East Asian Printing Traditions Influence the European Renaissance?". Arts of Asia Magazine (to appear). http://www.rightreading.com/printing/gutenberg.asia/gutenberg-asia-1-introduction.htm. Retrieved on 2006-10-18. 
  388. Sohn, Pow-Key (Summer 1993). "Printing Since the 8th Century in Korea". Koreana 7 (2): 4–9. 
  389. Hobson, John M. (2004). The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation. Cambridge University Press. p. 141. ISBN 9780521547246. https://books.google.com/books?id=KQN85hrJyT4C&pg=PA141. 
  390. Partington, James Riddick (1999), A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder, Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 203, ISBN 0-8018-5954-9, https://books.google.com/?id=30IJLnwpc8EC 
  391. Template:Cite
  392. Template:Cite
  393. David A. King (1983). "The Astronomy of the Mamluks", Isis 74 (4), p. 531-555 [545-546].
  394. King, David A. (1983), "The Astronomy of the Mamluks", Isis 74 (4): 531-555 [547-8] 
  395. Jones, Lawrence (December 2005), "The Sundial And Geometry", North American Sundial Society 12 (4) 
  396. G. R. Tibbetts (1973), "Comparisons between Arab and Chinese Navigational Techniques", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 36 (1): 97-108 [105-6]
  397. Irfan Habib (2011), Economic History of Medieval India, 1200–1500, p. 53, Pearson Education
  398. 398.0 398.1 Irfan Habib (2011), Economic History of Medieval India, 1200–1500, page 53, Pearson Education
  399. Irfan Habib (2011), Economic History of Medieval India, 1200–1500, pp. 53–54, Pearson Education
  400. E. S. Kennedy (1947), "Al-Kashi's Plate of Conjunctions", Isis 38 (1-2), p. 56-59 [56].
  401. 401.0 401.1 E. S. Kennedy (1950), "A Fifteenth-Century Planetary Computer: al-Kashi's Tabaq al-Manateq I. Motion of the Sun and Moon in Longitude", Isis 41 (2), p. 180-183.
  402. E. S. Kennedy (1952), "A Fifteenth-Century Planetary Computer: al-Kashi's Tabaq al-Maneteq II: Longitudes, Distances, and Equations of the Planets", Isis 43 (1), p. 42-50.
  403. E. S. Kennedy (1951), "An Islamic Computer for Planetary Latitudes", Journal of the American Oriental Society 71 (1), p. 13-21.
  404. "Military Transformation in the Ottoman Empire and Russia, 1500–1800" (2011). Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 12 (2): 281–319 [294]. doi:10.1353/kri.2011.0018. 
  405. Weinberg, Bennett Alan; Bonnie K. Bealer (2001), The world of caffeine, Routledge, pp. Page 3–4, ISBN 978-0-415-92723-9, https://books.google.com/?id=Qyz5CnOaH9oC&pg=PA3&dq=coffee+goat+ethiopia+Kaldi 
  406. Ireland, Corydon. "Of the bean I sing". http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/?p=86444. Retrieved on 21 July 2011. 
  407. Ayalon, David (2013). Gunpowder and Firearms in the Mamluk Kingdom: A Challenge to Medieval Society (1956). Routledge. p. 126. ISBN 9781136277320. https://books.google.com/books?id=WmpySZZNJhcC&pg=PT126. 
  408. 408.0 408.1 408.2 Salim Al-Hassani (19 June 2008). "The Astronomical Clock of Taqi Al-Din: Virtual Reconstruction". FSTC. http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=947. Retrieved on 2008-07-02.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Hassani" defined multiple times with different content
  409. Ahmad Y Hassan (1976). Taqi al-Din and Arabic Mechanical Engineering, p. 34-35. Institute for the History of Arabic Science, University of Aleppo.
  410. Donald Routledge Hill and Ahmad Y Hassan. "Engineering in Arabic-Islamic Civilization". History of Science and Technology in Islam. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2011.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-03. 
  411. Routledge Hill, Donald. "Engineering". Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science 2: 751–795. London and New York: Routledge. 
  412. pencil, Encyclopædia Britannica
  413. Topdemir, Hüseyin Gazi (1999), Takîyüddîn'in Optik Kitabi, Ministery of Culture Press, Ankara  (cf. Dr. Hüseyin Gazi Topdemir (30 June 2008). "Taqi al-Din ibn Ma‘ruf and the Science of Optics: The Nature of Light and the Mechanism of Vision". FSTC Limited. http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=951. Retrieved on 2008-07-04. )
  414. Sevim Tekeli, "Taqi al-Din", in Helaine Selin (1997), Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 0792340663
  415. Sayili, Aydin (1991), The Observatory in Islam, pp. 289–305  (cf. Dr. Salim Ayduz (26 June 2008). "Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: A Bio-Bibliographical Essay". http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=949. Retrieved on 2008-07-04. )
  416. 416.0 416.1 Irfan Habib (1992), "Akbar and Technology", Social Scientist 20 (9-10), pp. 3-15 [3-4].
  417. Rousselet (1875), page 290
  418. Sivaramakrishnan (2001), pages 4-5
  419. Blechynden (1905), page 215
  420. 420.0 420.1 A. K. Bag (2005), "Fathullah Shirazi: Cannon, Multi-barrel Gun and Yarghu", Indian Journal of History of Science 40 (3): 431-36
  421. Friedrich Christian Charles August; Gustav von Buchwald (1890). The Emperor Akbar. Trübner & Co.. http://books.google.com/books?id=-bE9AAAAMAAJ&printsec=titlepage&client=firefox-a#PPA281,M1. Retrieved on 2008-04-04. 
  422. 422.0 422.1 Savage-Smith, Emilie (1985), Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their history, Construction, and Use, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 
  423. American Physical Society - This Month in Physics - History Lens Crafters Circa 1590: Invention of the Microscope
  424. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008). chintz
  425. 425.0 425.1 Old Walled City of Shibam, UNESCO World Heritage Centre
  426. Helfritz, Hans (April 1937), "Land without shade", Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 24 (2): 201–16 
  427. Razpush, Shahnaz (15 December 2000). "ḠALYĀN". Encyclopedia Iranica. pp. 261–265. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/galyan-. Retrieved on 19 December 2012. 
  428. Al-Hassan, Ahmad Y., Taqi ad-Din and Arabic Mechanical Engineering, with an offset copy of MS Chester Beatty No. 5232, Institute for the History of Arabic Science, University of Aleppo, 1976, pp. 38-42
  429. Wilson, David Gordon; Korakianitis, Theodosios (2014). The Design of High-Efficiency Turbomachinery and Gas Turbines. MIT Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780262526685. https://books.google.com/books?id=QwGZBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA3. 
  430. Hassani, A. M. (1979). "Arab Scientists Revisited: Ibn Ash-Shatir and Taqi ed-Din". History of Science 17: 135–140. Bibcode1979HisSc..17..135H. 
  431. Hill, Donald R. (1978). "Review of Taqī-al-Dīn and Arabic Mechanical Engineering. With the Sublime Methods of Spiritual Machines. An Arabic Manuscript of the Sixteenth Century". Isis 69 (1): 117–118. 
  432. Bowles, Edmund A. (2006), "The impact of Turkish military bands on European court festivals in the 17th and 18th centuries", Early Music (Oxford University Press) 34 (4): 533–60, doi:10.1093/em/cal103 
  433. Fazlıoğlu, İhsan (2014). "Taqī al-Dīn Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zayn al-Dīn Maҁrūf al-Dimashqī al-Ḥanafī". Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Springer, New York, NY. pp. 2123–2126. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-9917-7_1360. ISBN 978-1-4419-9916-0. 
  434. Bag, A.K. (2005). "Fathullah Shirazi: Cannon, Multi-barrel Gun and Yarghu". Indian Journal of History of Science 40 (3): 431–436. ISSN 0019-5235. 
  435. Clarence-Smith, William Gervase, Science and technology in early modern Islam, c.1450-c.1850, Global Economic History Network, London School of Economics, p. 7, http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/economicHistory/GEHN/GEHNPDF/ScienceandTechnology-WGCS.pdf 
  436. MughalistanSipahi (19 June 2010). "Islamic Mughal Empire: War Elephants Part 3". https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lbzr26t8H2U. Retrieved on 28 November 2012. 
  437. galileo.rice.edu The Galileo Project > Science > The Telescope by Al Van Helden "The Hague discussed the patent applications first of Hans Lipperhey of Middelburg, and then of Jacob Metius of Alkmaar... another citizen of Middelburg, Sacharias Janssen had a telescope at about the same time but was at the Frankfurt Fair where he tried to sell it"
  438. "1679-1681 – R P Verbiest's Steam Chariot". History of the Automobile: origin to 1900. Hergé. http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://users.skynet.be/tintinpassion/VOIRSAVOIR/Auto/Pages_auto/Auto_001.html&sa=X&oi=translate. Retrieved on 2009-05-08. 
  439. Setright, L. J. K. (2004). Drive On!: A Social History of the Motor Car. Granta Books. ISBN 1-86207-698-7. 
  440. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008). interior design
  441. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008). crewel work
  442. Needham, Joseph (1987). Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 7, Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic. Cambridge University Press. p. 446. ISBN 9780521303583. https://books.google.com/books?id=hNcZJ35dIyUC&pg=PA446. 
  443. Winter, Frank H. (1992). "Who First Flew in a Rocket?", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 45 (July 1992), p. 275-80
  444. Harding, John (2006), Flying's strangest moments: extraordinary but true stories from over one thousand years of aviation history, Robson Publishing, p. 5, ISBN 1-86105-934-5 
  445. Odell, Jay Scott. "Banjo". Oxford University Press. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/A2256043. Retrieved on 23 February 2015. Template:Subscription required
  446. "Technological Dynamism in a Stagnant Sector: Safety at Sea during the Early Industrial Revolution". http://www.ucd.ie/t4cms/WP17_11.pdf. 
  447. Yazdani, Kaveh (2017). India, Modernity and the Great Divergence: Mysore and Gujarat (17th to 19th C.). BRILL. p. 235. ISBN 9789004330795. https://books.google.com/books?id=TdrzDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA253. "According to Amithaba Ghosh, 'Tipu's rockets could be considered as the first missiles, because the rocket could only carry itself, the propellant, its casing and the stabilizing stick', while 'the missile is distinguished by its ability to carry something more - like the sword or the bomb'. Tipu also used sword fixed rockets." 
  448. 448.0 448.1 Roddam Narasimha (1985), Rockets in Mysore and Britain, 1750-1850 A.D., National Aeronautical Laboratory and Indian Institute of Science
  449. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "rocket and missile"
  450. Todd, Jan (1995). From Milo to Milo: A History of Barbells, Dumbells, and Indian Clubs. Accessed in September 2008. Hosted on the LA84 Foundation Sports Library.
  451. 451.0 451.1 Acott, Chris (1999). "JS Haldane, JBS Haldane, L Hill, and A Siebe: A brief resume of their lives.". South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society journal 29 (3). ISSN 0813-1988. OCLC 16986801. Retrieved on 2009-04-21. 
  452. Isin, Priscilla Mary (15 May 2018). Bountiful Empire: A History of Ottoman Cuisine. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-78023-939-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=0D5tDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT170. 
  453. "Seeking shawarma? Pining for (al) pastor? We find 4 great shaved meats around Charlotte". http://www.charlotteobserver.com/living/food-drink/article74387692.html. Retrieved on 4 May 2017. 
  454. Marks, Gil (17 November 2010). Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. HMH. ISBN 978-0-544-18631-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=gFK_yx7Ps7cC&pg=PT1682. 
  455. Connors; Dupuis & Morgan (1992) "Badminton" from The Olympics Factbook. Page 195
  456. Guillain (2004), page 47
  457. Quick, D. (1970). "A History Of Closed Circuit Oxygen Underwater Breathing Apparatus". Royal Australian Navy, School of Underwater Medicine. RANSUM-1-70. Retrieved on 2009-03-16. 
  458. Maxim's 1884 Prototype Automatic Rifle Based on definition as being fully-automatic. James Puckle in 1718 made a "multi shot gun" that has been called a "machine gun" but not automatic, more like a revolver. Richard Gatling's 1861 Gatling Gun hand cranked so is a 'semi-automatic machine gun'
  459. 459.0 459.1 根本智『パイオニア飛行機物語』(オーム社、1996年、ISBN 4-274-0231401)、p66
  460. Anderson, L. I., "John Stone Stone on Nikola Tesla’s Priority in Radio and Continuous Wave Radiofrequency Apparatus". The Antique Wireless Association Review, Vol. 1, 1986.
  461. A. K. Sen (1997). "Sir J.C. Bose and radio science", Microwave Symposium Digest 2 (8-13), p. 557-560
  462. Nagai N. (1893). "Kanyaku maou seibun kenkyuu seiseki (zoku)". Yakugaku Zashi 13: 901. 
  463. History of Property Rights - Ikeda, Kikunae
  464. Ikeda K (November 2002). "New seasonings". Chem. Senses 27 (9): 847–9. doi:10.1093/chemse/27.9.847. PMID 12438213.  (partial translation of Ikeda, Kikunae (1909). "New Seasonings[japan.]". Journal of the Chemical Society of Tokyo 30: 820–836. )
  465. "Jagadis Bose Research on Measurement of Plant Growth". http://www.edsanders.com/bose. Retrieved on 2008-08-05. 
  466. Tokyo Kagaku Kaishi (1911)
  467. Who Invented The Tank? - Bovington Tank Museum
  468. Narlikar, J. V. (2002), An Introduction to Cosmology, p. 188, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521793769
  469. 469.0 469.1 469.2 "Non-Stop Shuttle Change Toyoda Automatic Loom, Type G" (in Japanese). The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. http://www.jsme.or.jp/kikaiisan/data/no_016.html. 
  470. "Milestones:Development of Electronic Television, 1924-1941". http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Milestones:Development_of_Electronic_Television,_1924-1941. Retrieved on June 15, 2017. 
  471. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "Raman effect"
  472. Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar. Vigyan Prasar: Government of India.
  473. Magnetic properties of matter, Kotaro Honda (1928)
  474. "Tokushichi Mishima MK Magnetic Steel". http://www.jpo.go.jp/seido_e/rekishi_e/tokushi_mishima.htm. 
  475. "Permanent magnet containing copper". http://www.freepatentsonline.com/2027997.pdf. 
  476. History of Research on Switching Theory in Japan, IEEJ Transactions on Fundamentals and Materials, Vol. 124 (2004) No. 8, pp. 720–726, Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan
  477. Japan, Information Processing Society of. "Switching Theory/Relay Circuit Network Theory/Theory of Logical Mathematics – IPSJ Computer Museum". http://museum.ipsj.or.jp/en/computer/dawn/0002.html. Retrieved on 25 October 2017. 
  478. Radomir S. Stanković (University of Niš), Jaakko T. Astola (Tampere University of Technology), Mark G. Karpovsky (Boston University), Some Historical Remarks on Switching Theory, 2007, DOI 10.1.1.66.1248
  479. 479.0 479.1 Radomir S. Stanković, Jaakko Astola (2008), Reprints from the Early Days of Information Sciences: TICSP Series On the Contributions of Akira Nakashima to Switching Theory, TICSP Series #40, Tampere International Center for Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology
  480. Holmes, Thom. 2008. "Early Synthesizers and Experimenters". In his Electronic and Experimental Music: Technology, Music, and Culture, third edition. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-95781-6 (cloth); ISBN 978-0-415-95782-3 (pbk), (accessed 4 June 2011), pp. 153–54 & 157
  481. Dummer, G. W. A. (2013-10-22). Electronic Inventions and Discoveries: Electronics from its Earliest Beginnings to the Present Day. ISBN 9781483145211. https://books.google.com/books?id=PbYgBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA137. 
  482. Junction Field-Effect Devices, Semiconductor Devices for Power Conditioning, 1982
  483. [John Brockman, editor. The Greatest Inventions of the Past 2000 Years. Phoenix. 2000]
  484. David Lazarus (1995). 'Japan's Edison' Is Country's Gadget King : Japanese Inventor Holds Record for Patent. International Herald Tribune.
  485. Jack Baskin School of Engineering. (2008) Narinder Kapany, Ph.D.. UC Santa Cruz.
  486. Prathap, Gangan (March 2004), "Indian science slows down: The decline of open-ended research", Current Science 86 (6): 768-769 [769] 
  487. 487.0 487.1 Jun-ichi Nishizawa: Engineer, Sophia University Special Professor (interview), Japan Quality Review, 2011
  488. Hecht, Jeff (2004). City of Light: The Story of Fiber Optics (revised ed.). Oxford University. pp. 55–70. ISBN 9780195162554. 
  489. "A flexible fibrescope, using static scanning" (1954). Nature 173 (4392): 39–41. doi: